Multiboot USB drive (简体中文)

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附注: Partial translation, started 2022-09-30(在 Talk:Multiboot USB drive (简体中文)# 中讨论)
翻译状态:本文是 Multiboot USB drive翻译。上次翻译日期:2022-09-30。如果英文版本有所更改,则您可以帮助同步翻译。

多引导USB启动盘可以从单个设备引导多个ISO镜像文件。ISO镜像文件可以不需要解压复制到U盘上就可以启动。以下有多种可用的方案,但不一定兼容所有ISO镜像。

GRUB引导器及loopback devices实现

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Reason: multiple style issues (Discuss in Talk:Multiboot USB drive (简体中文))

优点:

  • 仅需要一个分区
  • 所有ISO文件镜像可在同一个文件夹下被检测到
  • 易于添加或移除ISO镜像文件

缺点:

  • 并非所有镜像兼容
  • the original boot menu for the ISO file is not shown
  • it can be difficult to find a working boot entry

准备

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Reason: How much extra space is needed for the bootloader? (Discuss in Talk:Multiboot USB drive (简体中文))

Create at least one partition and a filesystem supported by GRUB on the USB drive. See Partitioning and File systems#Create a file system. Choose the size based on the total size of the ISO files that you want to store on the drive, and plan for extra space for the bootloader.

安装 GRUB引导器

简单安装

挂载U盘:

# mount /dev/sdXY /mnt

U盘上创建 /boot文件夹:

# mkdir /mnt/boot

安装GRUB到U盘:

# grub-install --target=i386-pc --recheck --boot-directory=/mnt/boot /dev/sdX

如果以UEFI启动镜像, 你需要按UEFI方式安装GRUB:

# grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --removable --boot-directory=/mnt/boot --efi-directory=/mnt

For UEFI, the partition has to be the first one in an MBR partition table and formatted with FAT32.

混合 UEFI GPT + BIOS GPT/MBR 启动

This configuration is useful for creating a universal USB key, bootable everywhere. First of all you must create a GPT partition table on your device. You need at least 3 partitions:

  1. A BIOS boot partition (gdisk type code EF02). This partition must be 1 MiB in size
  2. An EFI System partition (gdisk type code EF00 with a FAT32 filesystem). This partition can be as small as 50 MiB.
  3. Your data partition (use a filesystem supported by GRUB). This partition can take up the rest of the space of your drive.

Next you must create a hybrid MBR partition table. Without it, a BIOS MBR based system will not boot. It will not find the partitions it expects to find.

Hybrid MBR partition table creation example using gdisk:

# gdisk /dev/sdX

Command (? for help): r
Recovery/transformation command (? for help): h

WARNING! Hybrid MBRs are flaky and dangerous! If you decide not to use one,
just hit the Enter key at the below prompt and your MBR partition table will
be untouched.

Type from one to three GPT partition numbers, separated by spaces, to be added to the hybrid MBR, in sequence: 1 2 3
Place EFI GPT (0xEE) partition first in MBR (good for GRUB)? (Y/N): N

Creating entry for GPT partition #1 (MBR partition #1)
Enter an MBR hex code (default EF): 
Set the bootable flag? (Y/N): N

Creating entry for GPT partition #2 (MBR partition #2)
Enter an MBR hex code (default EF): 
Set the bootable flag? (Y/N): N

Creating entry for GPT partition #3 (MBR partition #3)
Enter an MBR hex code (default 83): 
Set the bootable flag? (Y/N): Y

Recovery/transformation command (? for help): x
Expert command (? for help): h
Expert command (? for help): w

Final checks complete. About to write GPT data. THIS WILL OVERWRITE EXISTING
PARTITIONS!!

Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): Y

Do not forget to format the partitions :

# mkfs.fat -F32 /dev/sdX2
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdX3

You can now install GRUB to support both EFI + GPT and BIOS + GPT/MBR. The GRUB configuration (--boot-directory) can be kept in the same place.

First, you need to mount the EFI system partition and the data partition of your USB drive.

An example of this would be as follows:

# mount /dev/sdX3 /mnt
# mkdir -p /mnt/boot/EFI
# mount /dev/sdX2 /mnt/boot/EFI

Then, you can install GRUB for UEFI with:

In most cases EFI_MOUNTPOINT will correspond to the /mnt/boot/EFI subdirectory on your mounted USB disk.

# grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --recheck --removable --efi-directory=/EFI_MOUNTPOINT --boot-directory=/DATA_MOUNTPOINT/boot

And for BIOS with:

# grub-install --target=i386-pc --recheck --boot-directory=/DATA_MOUNTPOINT/boot /dev/sdX

As an additional fallback, you can also install GRUB on your MBR-bootable data partition:

# grub-install --target=i386-pc --recheck --boot-directory=/DATA_MOUNTPOINT/boot /dev/sdX3

配置 GRUB

参考模板

There are some git projects which provide some pre-existing GRUB configuration files, and a nice generic grub.cfg which can be used to load the other boot entries on demand, showing them only if the specified ISO files - or folders containing them - are present on the drive.

Multiboot USB: https://github.com/hackerncoder/multibootusb

GLIM (GRUB2 Live ISO Multiboot): https://github.com/thias/glim

手动配置

For the purpose of multiboot USB drive it is easier to edit grub.cfg by hand instead of generating it. Alternatively, make the following changes in /etc/grub.d/40_custom or /mnt/boot/grub/custom.cfg and generate /mnt/boot/grub/grub.cfg using grub-mkconfig.

As it is recommend to use a persistent name instead of /dev/sdxY to identify the partition on the USB drive where the image files are located, define a variable for convenience to hold the value. If the ISO images are on the same partition as GRUB, use the following to read the UUID at boot time:

/mnt/boot/grub/grub.cfg
# path to the partition holding ISO images (using UUID)
probe -u $root --set=rootuuid
set imgdevpath="/dev/disk/by-uuid/$rootuuid"

Or specify the UUID explicitly:

/mnt/boot/grub/grub.cfg
# path to the partition holding ISO images (using UUID)
set imgdevpath="/dev/disk/by-uuid/UUID_value"

Alternatively, use the device label instead of UUID:

/mnt/boot/grub/grub.cfg
# path to the partition holding ISO images (using labels)
set imgdevpath="/dev/disk/by-label/label_value"

The necessary UUID or label can be found using lsblk -f. Do not use the same label as the Arch ISO for the USB device, otherwise the boot process will fail.

To complete the configuration, a boot entry for each ISO image has to be added below this header, see the next section for examples.

启动项

It is assumed that the ISO images are stored in the boot/iso/ directory on the same filesystem where GRUB is installed. Otherwise it would be necessary to prefix the path to ISO file with device identification when using the loopback command, for example loopback loop (hd1,2)$isofile. As this identification of devices is not persistent, it is not used in the examples in this section.

One can use persistent block device naming like so. Replace the UUID according to your ISO filesystem UUID.

# define globally (i.e outside any menuentry)
insmod search_fs_uuid
search --no-floppy --set=isopart --fs-uuid 123-456
# later use inside each menuentry instead
loopback loop ($isopart)$isofile
Tip: For a list of kernel parameters, see the kernel's command-line parameter documentation. For more examples of boot entries, see the GRUB upstream documentation or the documentation for the distribution you wish to boot.

Arch Linux monthly release

Also see archiso.

menuentry '[loopback]archlinux-2020.10.01-x86_64.iso' {
	set isofile='/boot/iso/archlinux-2020.10.01-x86_64.iso'
	loopback loop $isofile
	linux (loop)/arch/boot/x86_64/vmlinuz-linux img_dev=$imgdevpath img_loop=$isofile earlymodules=loop
	initrd (loop)/arch/boot/intel-ucode.img (loop)/arch/boot/amd-ucode.img (loop)/arch/boot/x86_64/initramfs-linux.img
}

See README.bootparams for archiso options supported in kernel command line.

Memtest86+

Memtest86+[损坏的链接:无效的章节] is included in the monthly ISO.

menuentry '[loopback]archlinux-2020.10.01-x86_64.iso' {
	set isofile='/boot/iso/archlinux-2020.10.01-x86_64.iso'
	loopback loop $isofile
	linux16 (loop)/arch/boot/memtest
}

archboot

See Archboot Homepage.

menuentry '[loopback]archlinux-2014.11-1-archboot' {
	set isofile='/boot/iso/archlinux-2014.11-1-archboot.iso'
	loopback loop $isofile
	linux (loop)/boot/vmlinuz_x86_64 iso_loop_dev=$imgdevpath iso_loop_path=$isofile
	initrd (loop)/boot/initramfs_x86_64.img
}

Syslinux和memdisk实现

Using the memdisk module, the ISO image is loaded into memory, and its bootloader is loaded. Make sure that the system that will boot this USB drive has sufficient amount of memory for the image file and running operating system.

准备

Make sure that the USB drive is properly partitioned and that there is a partition with file system supported by Syslinux, for example fat32 or ext4. Then install Syslinux to this partition, see Syslinux#Installation on BIOS.

安装 memdisk 模块

The memdisk module was not installed during Syslinux installation, it has to be installed manually. Mount the partition where Syslinux is installed to /mnt/ and copy the memdisk module to the same directory where Syslinux is installed:

# cp /usr/lib/syslinux/bios/memdisk /mnt/boot/syslinux/

配置

After copying the ISO files on the USB drive, edit the Syslinux configuration file and create menu entries for the ISO images. The basic entry looks like this:

boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg
LABEL some_label
    LINUX memdisk
    INITRD /path/to/image.iso
    APPEND iso

See memdisk on Syslinux wiki for more configuration options.

自动制作工具实现(开源软件)

  • GRUB2 Live ISO Multiboot (GLIM) — A set of GRUB configuration files to turn a VFAT formatted USB memory stick with GNU/Linux distribution ISO images into a multiboot USB drive.
https://github.com/thias/glim || not packaged? search in AUR
  • liveusb-builder — A script suite to create multiboot USB stick for GNU/Linux distributions
https://github.com/mytbk/liveusb-builder || liveusb-builder-gitAUR
  • MultiBootUSB — 一个具有CLI和GUI界面的跨平台Python软件,可添加或删除多个Linux LIVE映像环境到U盘。
https://github.com/mbusb/multibootusb || multibootusbAUR
  • MultiSystem — 一个图形化工具,可添加或删除多个Linux LIVE映像环境到U盘。
http://liveusb.info/dotclear/ || multisystemAUR
  • Ventoy — 一个开源工具,为ISO/WIM/IMG/VHD(x)/EFI文件创建可引导的USB驱动器。不需要一遍又一遍格式化磁盘,只需要复制文件到U盘即可启动。
https://www.ventoy.net/ || ventoy-binAUR

更多参考