# USB flash installation medium

This page discusses various multi-platform methods on how to create an Arch Linux Installer USB drive (also referred to as "flash drive", "USB stick", "USB key", etc) for booting in BIOS and UEFI systems. The result will be a Live USB (Live CD-like) system that can be used for installing Arch Linux, system maintenance or for recovery purposes, and that, because of using Overlayfs for /, will discard all changes once the computer shuts down.

If you would like to run a full install of Arch Linux from a USB drive (i.e. with persistent settings), see Install Arch Linux on a removable medium. If you would like to use your bootable Arch Linux USB stick as a rescue USB, see Change root.

## Using the ISO as is (BIOS and UEFI)

### In GNU/Linux

#### Using basic command line utilities

This method is recommended due to its simplicity and universal availability, since these tools are part of coreutils (pulled in by the base meta-package).

Warning: This will irrevocably destroy all data on /dev/sdx. To restore the USB drive as an empty, usable storage device after using the Arch ISO image, the ISO 9660 filesystem signature needs to be removed by running wipefs --all /dev/sdx as root, before repartitioning and reformatting the USB drive.
Tip: Find out the name of your USB drive with lsblk. Make sure that it is not mounted.

Run the following command, replacing /dev/sdx with your drive, e.g. /dev/sdb. (Do not append a partition number, so do not use something like /dev/sdb1):

• using cat:
# cat path/to/archlinux-version-x86_64.iso > /dev/sdx
• using cp:
# cp path/to/archlinux-version-x86_64.iso /dev/sdx
• using dd:
# dd bs=4M if=path/to/archlinux-version-x86_64.iso of=/dev/sdx conv=fsync oflag=direct status=progress
• using tee:
# tee < path/to/archlinux-version-x86_64.iso > /dev/sdx

See [1] and [2] for a comparison and perspective on the use of those tools and why dd may be the least adapted one.

Tip: If the UEFI version of the USB's Arch ISO hangs or is unable to load, try repeating the medium creation process on the same USB drive one or more times. If this does not work, you may also try updating your motherboard's firmware.

#### Using GNOME Disk Utility

Linux distributions running GNOME can easily make a live CD through nautilus and gnome-disk-utility. Simply right-click on the .iso file, and select Open With Disk Image Writer. When GNOME Disk Utility opens, specify the flash drive from the Destination drop-down menu and click Start Restoring.

#### Using MultiWriter

gnome-multi-writer is a simple GTK3 based graphical tool to write an ISO file to one or multiple USB devices at once.

#### Using Kindd

Kindd is a Qt based graphical frontend for dd. It is available as kinddAUR.

#### Using Popsicle

Popsicle is a tool made for flashing ISO files to multiple USB devices in parallel by the PopOS development team. It is written in Rust and uses GTK. It is available as popsicleAUR.

#### Using SUSE Studio ImageWriter

SUSE Studio ImageWriter is a Qt based tool made by the OpenSUSE development team. It is available as imagewriterAUR.

#### Using xorriso-dd-target

xorriso-dd-target (from libisoburn) is a shell script which attempts to reduce the risk of overwriting the wrong storage device. Its safest mode is named -plug_test. For example, to use it as a regular user who can elevate to root using sudo:

$xorriso-dd-target -with_sudo -plug_test -DO_WRITE -image_file archlinux-version-x86_64.iso  See xorriso-dd-target(1) for details. ### In Windows #### Using win32diskimager win32diskimager is another graphical USB iso writing tool for Windows. Simply select your iso image and the target USB drive letter (you may have to format it first to assign it a drive letter), and click Write. #### Using USBwriter This method does not require any workaround and is as straightforward as dd under Linux. Just download the Arch Linux ISO, and with local administrator rights use the USBwriter utility to write to your USB flash memory. #### Using Rufus Rufus is a multi-purpose USB ISO writer. It provides a graphical user interface and does not care if the drive is properly formatted or not. Simply select the Arch Linux ISO, the USB drive you want to create the bootable Arch Linux onto and click START. Note: If the USB drive does not boot properly using the default ISO Image mode, DD Image mode should be used instead. To switch this mode on, select GPT from the Partition scheme drop-down menu. After clicking START you will get the mode selection dialog, select DD Image mode. Tip: To add an additional partition for persistent storage use the slider to choose the persistent partition's size. When using the persistent partition feature, make sure to select MBR in the Partition scheme drop-down menu and BIOS or UEFI in Target System, otherwise the drive will not be usable for both BIOS and UEFI booting. #### Using Cygwin Make sure your Cygwin installation contains the dd package. Place your image file in your home directory: C:\cygwin\home\John\  Run cygwin as administrator (required for cygwin to access hardware). To write to your USB drive use the following command: dd if=archlinux-version-x86_64.iso of=\\.\x: bs=4M  where archlinux-version-x86_64.iso is the path to the iso image file within the cygwin directory and \\.\x: is your USB flash drive where x is the windows designated letter, e.g. \\.\d:. On Cygwin 6.0, find out the correct partition with: cat /proc/partitions  and write the ISO image with the information from the output. Example: Warning: This will irrevocably delete all files on your USB flash drive, so make sure you do not have any important files on the flash drive before doing this. dd if=archlinux-version-x86_64.iso of=/dev/sdb bs=4M  #### dd for Windows A GPL licensed dd version for Windows is available at http://www.chrysocome.net/dd. The advantage of this over Cygwin is a smaller download. Use it as shown in instructions for Cygwin above. To begin, download the latest version of dd for Windows. Once downloaded, extract the archive's contents into Downloads or elsewhere. Now, launch your command prompt as an administrator. Next, change directory (cd) into the Downloads directory. If your Arch Linux ISO is elsewhere you may need to state the full path, for convenience you may wish to put the Arch Linux ISO into the same folder as the dd executable. The basic format of the command will look like this. # dd if=archlinux-version-x86_64.iso od=\\.\x: bs=4M  Note: The Windows drive letters are linked to a partition. To allow selecting the entire disk, dd for Windows provides the od parameter, which is used in the commands above. Note however that this parameter is specific to dd for Windows and cannot be found in other implementations of dd. Warning: Because the od is used, all partitions on the selected disk will be destroyed. Be absolutely sure that you are directing dd to the correct drive before executing. Simply replace the various null spots (indicated by an "x") with the correct date and correct drive letter. Here is a complete example. # dd if=ISOs\archlinux-version-x86_64.iso od=\\.\d: bs=4M  #### Using flashnul flashnul is an utility to verify the functionality and maintenance of Flash-Memory (USB-Flash, IDE-Flash, SecureDigital, MMC, MemoryStick, SmartMedia, XD, CompactFlash etc). From a command prompt, invoke flashnul with -p, and determine which device index is your USB drive, e.g.: C:\>flashnul -p Avaible physical drives: Avaible logical disks: C:\ D:\ E:\  When you have determined which device is the correct one, you can write the image to your drive, by invoking flashnul with the device index, -L, and the path to your image, e.g: C:\>flashnul E: -L path\to\archlinux-version-x86_64.iso  As long as you are really sure you want to write the data, type yes, then wait a bit for it to write. If you get an access denied error, close any Explorer windows you have open. If under Vista or Win7, you should open the console as administrator, or else flashnul will fail to open the stick as a block device and will only be able to write via the drive handle windows provides Note: Confirmed that you need to use drive letter as opposed to number. flashnul 1rc1, Windows 7 x64. ### In macOS #### Using macOS dd First, you need to identify the USB device. Open /Applications/Utilities/Terminal and list all storage devices with the command: $ diskutil list


Your USB device will appear as something like /dev/disk2 (external, physical). Verify that this is the device you want to erase by checking its name and size and then use its identifier for the commands below instead of /dev/diskX.

A USB device is normally auto-mounted in macOS, and you have to unmount (not eject) it before block-writing to it with dd. In Terminal, do:

\$ diskutil unmountDisk /dev/diskX


Now copy the ISO image file to the device. The dd command is similar to its Linux counterpart, but notice the 'r' before 'disk' for raw mode which makes the transfer much faster:

Note: BSD-derived dd, which includes macOS's default dd, uses lower-case m suffix. This differs from GNU dd, used elsewhere in this article.
# dd if=path/to/archlinux-version-x86_64.iso of=/dev/rdiskX bs=1m


This command will run silently. To view progress, send SIGINFO by pressing Ctrl+t. Note diskX here should not include the s1 suffix, or else the USB device will only be bootable in UEFI mode and not legacy. After completion, macOS may complain that "The disk you inserted was not readable by this computer". Select 'Ignore'. The USB device will be bootable.

### In Android

#### EtchDroid

EtchDroid is a OS image flasher for Android. It works without root permissions on Android 5 to Android 8. According to bug reports it does not always work on Android 9 and Android 4.4.

To create an Arch Linux installer, download the ISO image file on your Android device. Plug the USB drive to your device, using a USB-OTG adapter if needed. Open EtchDroid, select "Flash raw image", select your Arch ISO, then select your USB drive. Grant the USB API permission and confirm.

Keep your phone on a table while it is writing the image: a lot of USB-OTG adapters are a bit wobbly and you might unplug it by mistake.

## Using manual formatting

### BIOS and UEFI

#### In GNU/Linux

This method is more complicated than writing the image directly with dd, but it does keep the flash drive usable for data storage (that is, the ISO is installed in a specific partition within the already partitioned device without altering other partitions).

Note: Here, we will denote the targeted partition as /dev/sdXn. In any of the following commands, adjust X and n according to your system.
• If not done yet, create a partition table on /dev/sdX.
• If not done yet, create a partition on the device. The partition /dev/sdXn must be formatted to FAT32.
• Mount the FAT32 file system located in the USB flash device and extract the contents of the ISO image to it. For example:
# mount /dev/sdXn /mnt
# bsdtar -x -f archlinux-version-x86_64.iso -C /mnt


Booting requires specifying the volume on which the files reside. By default the label ARCH_YYYYMM (with the appropriate release year and month) is used. Thus, the file system’s label has to be set accordingly. Alternatively, you can change this behaviour by altering the lines ending by archisolabel=ARCH_YYYYMM in the files:

• BIOS boot: /mnt/syslinux/archiso_sys-linux.cfg
• UEFI boot: /mnt/loader/entries/01-archiso-x86_64-linux.conf, /mnt/loader/entries/02-archiso-x86_64-speech-linux.conf and /mnt/loader/entries/03-archiso-x86_64-ram-linux.conf

To use an UUID instead, replace those portions of lines with archisodevice=/dev/disk/by-uuid/YOUR-UUID.

Note: Wrong archisolabel or archisodevice will prevent booting from the created medium.

Syslinux files for BIOS systems are already copied to /mnt/syslinux. Unmount the FAT file system, install the syslinux and mtools packages and run the following commands to make the partition bootable:

# umount /mnt
# syslinux --directory syslinux --install /dev/sdXn
# dd bs=440 count=1 conv=notrunc if=/usr/lib/syslinux/bios/mbr.bin of=/dev/sdX

Note:

#### In Windows

Note:
• For manual formatting, do not use any Bootable USB Creator utility for creating the UEFI bootable USB. For manual formatting, do not use dd for Windows to dd the ISO to the USB drive either.
• In the below commands, X: is assumed to be the USB flash drive in Windows.
• Windows uses backward slash \ as path-separator, so the same is used in the below commands.
• All commands should be run in Windows command prompt as administrator.
• > denotes the Windows command prompt.
• Partition and format the USB drive using Rufus USB partitioner. Select partition scheme option as MBR for BIOS and UEFI and File system as FAT32. Uncheck "Create a bootable disk using ISO image" and "Create extended label and icon files" options.
• Change the Volume Label of the USB flash drive X: to match the LABEL mentioned in the archisolabel= part in <ISO>\loader\entries\archiso-x86_64.conf. This step is required for Official ISO (Archiso). This step can be also performed using Rufus, during the prior "partition and format" step.
• Extract the ISO (similar to extracting ZIP archive) to the USB flash drive using 7-Zip.
• Download official Syslinux 6.xx binaries (zip file) from https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/boot/syslinux/ and extract it. The version of Syslinux should be the same version used in the ISO image.
• Run the following command (in Windows cmd prompt, as admin):
> cd bios\
> for /r %Y in (*.c32) do copy "%Y" "X:\syslinux\" /y
> copy mbr\*.bin X:\syslinux\ /y

• Install Syslinux to the USB by running (use win64\syslinux64.exe for x64 Windows):
> cd bios\
> win32\syslinux.exe -d /syslinux -i -a -m X:

Note:
• The above step installs Syslinux's ldlinux.sys to the VBR of the USB partition, sets the partition as "active/boot" in the MBR partition table and writes the MBR boot code to the 1st 440-byte boot code region of the USB.
• The -d switch expects a path with forward slash path-separator like in *unix systems.

### BIOS only

#### In GNU/Linux

##### Making a USB-ZIP drive

For some old BIOS systems, only booting from USB-ZIP drives is supported. This method allows you to still boot from a USB-HDD drive.

Warning: This will destroy all information on your USB flash drive!
• Download syslinux and mtools from the official repositories.
• Find your usb drive with lsblk.
• Type mkdiskimage -4 /dev/sdx 0 64 32 (replace x with the letter of your drive). This will take a while.

From here continue with the manual formatting method. The partition will be /dev/sdx4 due to the way ZIP drives work.

Note: Do not format the drive as FAT32; keep it as FAT16.

### UEFI only

For UEFI-only booting, it is enough to copy the files from the ISO and either change the FAT volume's label or edit boot loader configuration files to set archisolabel/archisodevice accordingly.

#### In GNU/Linux

This method involves simply copies files from the ISO image to a USB flash drive and either adjusts the systemd-boot configuration or the file system's label.

1. If not done yet, create a partition table on /dev/sdX and a partition (/dev/sdXn) on the device.
2. If not done yet, format the partition to FAT32:
# mkfs.fat -F 32 /dev/sdXn
3. Mount the FAT32 file system:
# mount /dev/sdXn /mnt
4. Extract the ISO image to the mounted file system:
# bsdtar -x --exclude=syslinux/ -f archlinux-version-x86_64.iso -C /mnt
5. Either:
• edit /mnt/loader/entries/archiso-x86_64-linux.conf and /mnt/loader/entries/archiso-x86_64-speech-linux.conf and change archisolabel=ARCH_YYYYMM to match your device, e.g. by replacing it with archisodevice=/dev/disk/by-uuid/YOUR-UUID,
• or unmount the file system and change its LABEL to match ARCH_YYYYMM:
# fatlabel /dev/sdXn ARCH_YYYYMM
6. Unmount the FAT32 file system.

#### In Windows

1. Partition the USB flash drive and format it to FAT32.
2. Right click on archlinux-version-x86_64.iso and select Mount.
3. Navigate to the newly created DVD drive and copy all files and folders except for syslinux to the USB flash drive.
4. When done copying, right click on the DVD drive and select Eject.
5. Either:
• edit X:\loader\entries\archiso-x86_64-linux.conf and X:\loader\entries\archiso-x86_64-speech-linux.conf with a text editor and change archisolabel=ARCH_YYYYMM to match your device, e.g. by replacing it with archisolabel=YOUR-LABEL,
• or change the FAT32 volume label to match ARCH_YYYYMM.
6. Eject the USB flash drive.

## Using a multiboot USB drive

This allows booting multiple ISOs from a single USB device, including the archiso. Updating an existing USB drive to a more recent ISO is simpler than for most other methods. See Multiboot USB drive.

### Using ventoy

Ventoy is an open source tool to create bootable USB drive for ISO/WIM/IMG/VHD(x)/EFI files. With ventoy, you do not need to format the disk over and over, you just need to copy the ISO/WIM/IMG/VHD(x)EFI files to the USB drive and boot them directly. You can copy many files at a time and ventoy will give you a boot menu to select them. It is available as ventoy-binAUR.

### In Windows

#### Loading the installation medium from RAM

This article or section is a candidate for merging with Multiboot USB drive#Using Syslinux and memdisk.

Notes: This is the same method, only Syslinux is installed from Windows. Considering that multiboot USB drive can be used to boot an installation medium and it is already linked from the Related articles box at the top, maybe this section should be merged there? (Discuss in Talk:USB flash installation medium)

This method uses Syslinux and a Ramdisk (MEMDISK) to load the entire Arch Linux ISO image into RAM. Since this will be running entirely from system memory, you will need to make sure the system you will be installing this on has an adequate amount. A minimum amount of RAM between 500 MB and 1 GB should suffice for a MEMDISK based, Arch Linux install.

For more information on Arch Linux system requirements as well as those for MEMDISK see the Installation guide and here. For reference, here is the preceding forum thread.

Tip: Once the installer has completed loading you can simply remove the USB stick and even use it on a different machine to start the process all over again. Utilizing MEMDISK also allows booting and installing Arch Linux to and from the same USB flash drive.
##### Preparing the USB flash drive

Begin by formatting the USB flash drive as FAT32. Then create the following folders on the newly formatted drive.

• Boot
• Boot/ISOs
• Boot/Settings
##### Copy the needed files to the USB flash drive

Next copy the ISO that you would like to boot to the Boot/ISOs folder. After that, extract from the following files from the latest release of syslinux from here and copy them into the following folders.

• ./win32/syslinux.exe to the Desktop or Downloads folder on your system.
• ./memdisk/memdisk to the Settings folder on your USB flash drive.
##### Create the configuration file

After copying the needed files, navigate to the USB flash drive, /boot/Settings and create a syslinux.cfg file.

Note: On the INITRD line, be sure to use the name of the ISO file that you copied to your ISOs folder.
/Boot/Settings/syslinux.cfg
DEFAULT arch_iso

LABEL arch_iso
MENU LABEL Arch Setup
LINUX memdisk
INITRD /Boot/ISOs/archlinux-version-x86_64.iso
APPEND iso

For more information see the Syslinux article.

##### Final steps

Finally, create a *.bat file where syslinux.exe is located and run it ("Run as administrator" if you are on Vista or Windows 7):

C:\Documents and Settings\username\Desktop\install.bat
@echo off
syslinux.exe -m -a -d /Boot/Settings X:


## Inadvisable methods

Warning: The following methods are discouraged.

### Using etcher

etcher contains analytics and first-party advertising. See [3], [4] and [5].

### Using Universal USB Installer

• The download page contains fake Download buttons that may contain malware.
• Universal USB Installer does not write the ISO as-is which breaks BIOS booting due to the discrepancy in syslinux versions. See [6].
• The Arch Linux installation image's boot loaders expect the ISO contents to reside on volume with the label ARCH_YYYYXX. Universal USB Installer does not update the file system label, nor does it correct the boot loader configuration.

### Using UNetbootin

• UNetbootin does not write the ISO as-is which breaks BIOS booting due to the discrepancy in syslinux versions.
• The Arch Linux installation image's boot loaders expect the ISO contents to reside on volume with the label ARCH_YYYYXX. UNetbootin does not update the file system label, nor does it correct the boot loader configuration.

## Troubleshooting

• If you get the device did not show up after 30 seconds error due to /dev/disk/by-label/ARCH_YYYYMM not mounting, try renaming your USB medium to ARCH_YYYYMM so Arch can find it. (e.g. For archlinux-2021.02.01-x86_64.iso, use ARCH_202102).
• If you get other errors, try using another USB device. There are case scenarios in which it solved all issues.
• If you get losetup: /run/archiso/bootmnt/arch/x86_64/airootfs.sfs: failed to set up loop devices: No such file or directory, try using a USB 2.0 port. (Some USB 3.0 ports through USB hubs do not work.)