User:Alex4ip/General recommendations (Українська)
Цей документ є анотованим покажчиком популярних статей та важливою інформацією для вдосконалення та додавання функціональних можливостей встановленої системи Arch. Передбачається, що читачі прочитали та дотримувались Інструкція з установки, щоб отримати базову установку Arch Linux. Прочитавши та зрозумівши поняття, пояснені в #Управління системою та #Управління пакунками, це "необхідно" для зрозуміння інших розділів цієї сторінки та інших статей у wiki.
Користувачі та групи
Нова установка має лише обліковий запис superuser, більш відомий як "root". Вхід у систему як root протягом тривалого періоду часу, чи навіть відкриття його через SSH на сервері, небезпечно. Натомість слід створити та використовувати непривілейовані облікові записи користувачів для більшості завдань, лише використовуючи кореневий обліковий запис для адміністрування системи. Докладніше див. у розділі Користувачі та групи#Управління користувачами.
Користувачі та групи є механізмом "контролю доступу"; адміністратори можуть налагодити членство в групі та право власності, щоб надати або заборонити користувачам і службам доступ до системних ресурсів. Прочитайте статтю Користувачі та групи для отримання детальної інформації та потенційних ризиків для безпеки.
Both the su and sudo commands allow you to run commands as another user. su by default starts an interactive shell as the root user, and sudo by default temporarily grants you root privileges for a single command. See their respective articles for differences. is a lighter alternative to sudo.
Arch Linux uses systemd as the init process, which is a system and service manager for Linux. For maintaining your Arch Linux installation, it is a good idea to learn the basics about it. Interaction with systemd is done through the systemctl command. Read systemd#Basic systemctl usage for more information.
Arch is a rolling release system and has rapid package turnover, so users have to take some time to do system maintenance. Read Security for recommendations and best practices on hardening the system.
pacman is the Arch Linux package manager: all users are required to become familiar with it before reading any other articles.
See pacman/Tips and tricks for suggestions on how to improve your interaction with pacman and package management in general.
See the Official repositories article for details about the purpose of each officially maintained repository.
If you plan on using 32-bit applications, you will want to enable the multilib repository.
The Unofficial user repositories article lists several other unsupported repositories.
You may consider installing the pkgstats service.
Visit the Mirrors article for steps on taking full advantage of using the fastest and most up to date mirrors of the official repositories. As explained in the article, a particularly good advice is to routinely check the Mirror Status page for a list of mirrors that have been recently synced.
Arch Build System
Ports is a system initially used by BSD distributions consisting of build scripts that reside in a directory tree on the local system. Simply put, each port contains a script within a directory intuitively named after the installable third-party application.
The Arch Build System offers the same functionality by providing build scripts called PKGBUILDs, which are populated with information for a given piece of software: integrity hashes, project URL, version, license and build instructions. These PKGBUILDs are parsed by makepkg, the actual program that generates packages that are cleanly manageable by pacman.
Every package in the repositories along with those present in the AUR are subject to recompilation with makepkg.
Arch User Repository
While the Arch Build System allows the ability of building software available in the official repositories, the Arch User Repository (AUR) is the equivalent for user submitted packages. It is an unsupported repository of build scripts accessible through the web interface or through the Aurweb RPC interface.
Hardware should be auto-detected by udev during the boot process by default. A potential improvement in boot time can be achieved by disabling module auto-loading and specifying required modules manually, as described in Kernel modules. Additionally, Xorg should be able to auto-detect required drivers using
udev, but users have the option to configure the X server manually too.
Retaining boot messages
Once it concludes, the screen is cleared and the login prompt appears, leaving users unable to gather feedback from the boot process. Disable clearing of boot messages to overcome this limitation.
Num Lock activation
Graphical user interface
This section provides orientation for users wishing to run graphical applications on their system. See Category:Graphical user interfaces for additional resources.
Xorg is the public, open-source implementation of the X Window System (commonly X11, or X). It is required for running applications with graphical user interfaces (GUIs), and the majority of users will want to install it.
Wayland is a newer, alternative display server protocol and the Weston reference implementation is available.
The default vesa display driver will work with most video cards, but performance can be significantly improved and additional features harnessed by installing the appropriate driver for AMD, Intel, or NVIDIA products.
Although Xorg provides the basic framework for building a graphical environment, additional components may be considered necessary for a complete user experience. Desktop environments such as GNOME, KDE, LXDE, and Xfce bundle together a wide range of X clients, such as a window manager, panel, file manager, terminal emulator, text editor, icons, and other utilities. Users with less experience may wish to install a desktop environment for a more familiar environment. See Category:Desktop environments for additional resources.
A full-fledged desktop environment provides a complete and consistent graphical user interface, but tends to consume a considerable amount of system resources. Users seeking to maximize performance or otherwise simplify their environment may opt to install a window manager alone and hand-pick desired extras. Most desktop environments allow use of an alternative window manager as well. Dynamic, stacking, and tiling window managers differ in their handling of window placement.
Most desktop environments include a display manager for automatically starting the graphical environment and managing user logins. Users without a desktop environment can install one separately. Alternatively you may start X at login as a simple alternative to a display manager.
Well-known user directories like Downloads or Music are created by the
xdg-user-dirs-update.service user service, that is provided by and enabled by default upon install. If your desktop environment or window manager does not pull in the package, you can install it and run
xdg-user-dirs-update manually as per XDG user directories#Creating default directories.
This section may be of use to laptop owners or users otherwise seeking power management controls. For more, please see Category:Power management.
See Power management for more general overview.
Users can configure how the system reacts to ACPI events such as pressing the power button or closing a laptop's lid. For the new (recommended) method using systemd, see Power management with systemd. For the old method, see acpid.
CPU frequency scaling
Modern processors can decrease their frequency and voltage to reduce heat and power consumption. Less heat leads to more quiet system and prolongs the life of hardware. See CPU frequency scaling for details.
For articles related to portable computing along with model-specific installation guides, please see Category:Laptops. For a general overview of laptop-related articles and recommendations, see Laptop.
Suspend and hibernate
See main article: Power management/Suspend and hibernate.
Category:Multimedia includes additional resources.
Sound is provided by kernel sound drivers:
- ALSA is included with the kernel and is recommended because usually it works out of the box (it just needs to be unmuted).
- OSS is a viable alternative in case ALSA does not work.
For access to certain web content, browser plugins such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, Adobe Flash Player, and Java can be installed.
Codecs are utilized by multimedia applications to encode or decode audio or video streams. In order to play encoded streams, users must ensure an appropriate codec is installed.
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks. See Time synchronization for implementations of such protocol.
For better security while browsing the web, paying online, connecting to SSH services and similar tasks consider using DNSSEC-enabled DNS resolver that can validate signed DNS records, and an encrypted protocol such as DNS over TLS, DNS over HTTPS or DNSCrypt. See Domain name resolution for details.
Setting up a firewall
A firewall can provide an extra layer of protection on top of the Linux networking stack. While the stock Arch kernel is capable of using Netfilter's iptables and nftables, neither are enabled by default. It is highly recommended to set up some form of firewall. See Category:Firewalls for available guides.
See also Category:Network sharing.
This section contains popular input device configuration tips. For more, please see Category:Input devices.
Non-English or otherwise non-standard keyboards may not function as expected by default. The necessary steps to configure the keymap are different for virtual console and Xorg, they are described in Keyboard configuration in console and Keyboard configuration in Xorg respectively.
Owners of advanced or unusual mice may find that not all mouse buttons are recognized by default, or may wish to assign different actions for extra buttons. Instructions can be found in Mouse buttons.
Many laptops use Synaptics or ALPS "touchpad" pointing devices. For these, and several other touchpad models, you can use either the Synaptics input driver or libinput; see Touchpad Synaptics and libinput for installation and configuration details.
See the TrackPoint article to configure your TrackPoint device.
This section aims to summarize tweaks, tools and available options useful to improve system and application performance.
Benchmarking is the act of measuring performance and comparing the results to another system's results or a widely accepted standard through a unified procedure.
The Improving performance article gathers information and is a basic rundown about gaining performance in Arch Linux.
Solid state drives
The Solid State Drives article covers many aspects of solid state drives, including configuring them to maximize their lifetimes.
File index and search
Most distributions have a locate command available to be able to quickly search for files. To get this functionality in Arch Linux,is the recommended install. After the install you should run updatedb to index the filesystems.
Local mail delivery
A default setup does not provide a way to sync mail. A list of mail delivery agents is available in the Mail server article.
This section contains frequently-sought "eye candy" tweaks for an aesthetically pleasing Arch experience. For more, please see Category:Eye candy.
You may wish to install a set of TrueType fonts, as only unscalable bitmap fonts are included in a basic Arch system. There are several general-purpose font families providing large Unicode coverage and even metric compatibility with fonts from other operating systems.
If spending a significant amount of time working from the virtual console (i.e. outside an X server), users may wish to change the console font to improve readability; see Linux console#Fonts.
GTK and Qt themes
A big part of the applications with a graphical interface for Linux systems are based on the GTK or the Qt toolkits. See those articles and Uniform look for Qt and GTK applications for ideas to improve the appearance of your installed programs and adapt it to your liking.
This section applies to small modifications that improve console programs' practicality. For more, please see Category:Command-line shells.
It is recommended to properly set up extended tab completion right away, as instructed in the article of your chosen shell.
Aliasing a command, or a group thereof, is a way of saving time when using the console. This is specially helpful for repetitive tasks that do not need significant alteration to their parameters between executions. Common time-saving aliases can be found in Bash#Aliases, which are easily portable to zsh as well.
This section is covered in Color output in console.
Compressed files, or archives, are frequently encountered on a GNU/Linux system. Tar is one of the most commonly used archiving tools, and users should be familiar with its syntax (Arch Linux packages, for example, are simply xzipped tarballs). See Archiving and compression.
Emacs is known for featuring options beyond the duties of regular text editing, one of these being a full shell replacement. Consult Emacs#Colored output issues for a fix regarding garbled characters that may result from enabling colored output.
Using a mouse with the console for copy-paste operations can be preferred over GNU Screen's traditional copy mode. Refer to General purpose mouse for comprehensive directions. Note that you can already do this in terminal emulators with the clipboard.
To be able to save and view text which has scrolled off the screen, refer to General troubleshooting#Scrollback.
Using terminal multiplexers like tmux or GNU Screen, programs may be run under sessions composed of tabs and panes that can be detached at will, so when the user either kills the terminal emulator, terminates X, or logs off, the programs associated with the session will continue to run in the background as long as the terminal multiplexer server is active. Interacting with the programs requires reattaching to the session.