Archboot (简体中文)

From ArchWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
翻译状态:本文是 Archboot翻译。上次翻译日期:2020-05-08。如果英文版本有所更改,则您可以帮助同步翻译。

Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png本文或本节需要翻译。要贡献翻译,请访问简体中文翻译团队Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png

附注: 大量内容(尤其后面)没有被翻译!(在 Talk:Archboot (简体中文)# 中讨论)

"Archboot"是一组启动 CD/USB/PXE 等启动介质的非官方脚本。它用来安装或者恢复系统。它不依赖于任何文件系统,只能运行在内存中。

安装

安装 软件包 archboot

与 archiso 的区别

  • 提供了额外的交互安装和快速安装脚本.
  • 内含 [core] 软件仓库.
  • 在 initramfs 中运行一个修改过的 Arch Linux 系统.
  • 仅在内存中使用,所有非必要的组件,例如手册说明等都没有提供
  • 启动过程中无任何挂载.
  • 支持通过 ssh 远程安装.

Archboot的发布

  • 提供ISO镜像文件和BT种子,并且包含x86_64的core库。
标记为 network 的镜像不含 [core].
kernel: 4.17.2-1
pacman: 5.1.0-2
systemd: 238.133-1
RAM recommendations: 1500 MB

烧录发布

Hybrid镜像是一个CD和硬盘镜像。

  • 可以用来刻录CD(RW)光盘.
  • 可以使用'dd' 或者 similar 工具写入磁盘介质. 这种方法也可用用来制作USB盘。
'dd if=<imagefile> of=/dev/<yourdevice> bs=1M'

PXE 启动 / 恢复系统

Download 2018.12 „2k18-R1“ needed files from the directory.

  • vmlinuz_x86_64 + initramfs_x86_64.img(x86_64)
  • intel-ucode.img (x86_64)
  • For PXE booting add the kernel and initrd to your tftp setup and you will get a running installation/rescue system.
  • For Rescue booting add a entry to your bootloader pointing to the kernel and initrd.

Supported boot modes of Archboot media

  • It supports BIOS booting with syslinux.
  • It supports UEFI/UEFI_CD booting with systemd-boot and EFISTUB.
  • It support UEFI_MIX_MODE booting with grub.
  • It supports Secure Boot with prebootloader.
  • It supports grub(2)'s iso loopback support.
variables used (below for example):
iso_loop_dev=PARTUUID=XXXX
iso_loop_path=/blah/archboot.iso
menuentry "Archboot" --class iso {
loopback loop (hdX,X)/<archboot.iso>
linux (loop)/boot/vmlinuz_x86_64 iso_loop_dev=/dev/sdXX iso_loop_path=/<archboot.iso>
initrd (loop)/boot/initramfs_x86_64.img
}
  • It supports booting using syslinux's memdisk (only in BIOS mode).
menuentry "Archboot Memdisk" {
   linux16 /memdisk iso
   initrd16 hd(X,X)/<archboot.iso>
}

How to do a remote installation with ssh?

  • During boot all network interfaces will try to obtain an IP address through dhcp.
  • root password is not set by default! If you need privacy during installation set a password.
'ssh root@<yourip>'

Interactive setup features

  • Media and Network installation mode
  • Changing keymap and consolefont
  • Changing time and date
  • Setup network with netctl
  • Preparing storage disk, like auto-prepare, partitioning, GUID (gpt) support, 4k sector drive support etc.
  • Creation of software raid/raid partitions, lvm2 devices and luks encrypted devices
  • Supports standard linux,raid/raid_partitions,dmraid/fakeraid,lvm2 and encrypted devices
  • Filesystem support: ext2/3/4, btrfs, f2fs, nilfs2, reiserfs,xfs,jfs,ntfs-3g,vfat
  • Name scheme support: PARTUUID, PARTLABEL, FSUUID, FSLABEL and KERNEL
  • Mount support of grub(2) loopback and memdisk installation media
  • Package selection support
  • hwdetect script is used for preconfiguration
  • Auto/Preconfiguration of fstab, kms mode, ssd, mkinitcpio.conf, systemd, crypttab and mdadm.conf
  • Configuration of basic system files
  • Setting root password
  • grub(2) (BIOS and UEFI), refind-efi, systemd-boot, syslinux (BIOS and UEFI) bootloader support

FAQ, Known Issues and limitations

  • Release specific known issues and workarounds are posted in changelog files.
  • Check also the forum threads for posted fixes and workarounds.
  • Why screen stays blank or other weird screen issues happen?
Some hardware doesn't like the KMS activation, use radeon.modeset=0, i915.modeset=0 or nouveau.modeset=0 on boot prompt.
  • dmraid/fakeraid might be broken on some boards, support is not perfect here.
The reason is there are so many different hardware components out there. At the moment 1.0.0rc16 is included, with latest fedora patchset, development has been stopped.
mdadm supports some isw and ddf fakeraid chipsets, but assembling during boot is deactivated in /etc/mdadm.conf!
  • grub2 cannot detect correct bios boot order:
It may happen that hd(x,x) entries are not correct, thus first reboot may not work.
Reason: grub cannot detect bios boot order.
Fix: Either change bios boot order or change menu.lst to correct entries after successful boot. This cannot be fixed it is a restriction in grub2!
  • Why is parted used in setup routine, instead of cfdisk in msdos partitiontable mode?
parted is the only linux partition program that can handle all type of things the setup routine offers.
cfdisk cannot handle GPT/GUID nor it can allign partitions correct with 1MB spaces for 4k sector disks.
cfdisk is a nice tool but is too limited to be the standard partitioner anymore.
cfdisk is still included but has to be run in another terminal.


历史

发布历史可以从 这里 找到.

Bugs

Arch Linux Bugtracker

Archboot BETA ISO Release

  • Hybrid image file is provided, which only supports network installation.
  • Please read the according Changelog files for RAM limitations.
  • Please check md5sum before using it.
  • No beta ISO available at the moment.

链接

Howto: Create image files

(Quick regeneration of installation media with latest available core packages)

Requirements

  • x86_64 architecture
  • ~ 3GB free space on disk

Create archboot chroots

  • Install archboot:
# mkdir -p x86_64_chroot/var/lib/pacman
# pacman --root "x86_64_chroot" -Sy base --noconfirm --noprogressbar
  • Enter archboot x86_64 container:
# systemd-nspawn --capability=CAP_MKNOD --register=no -M $(uname -m) -D x86_64_chroot

Install archboot and update to latest packages

Install archboot in chroot and update to latest available packages.

Generate images

# run in both chroots (needs quite some time ...)
archboot-allinone.sh -t
# put the generated tarballs in one directory and run (needs quite some time ...)
archboot-allinone.sh -g
  • Finished you get a bunch of images.