If you want Fail2ban to send an email when someone has been banned, you have to configure SSMTP (for example).
Currently, fail2ban must be run as root. Therefore, you may wish to consider hardening the process with systemd. Ref:systemd for Administrators, Part XII
For added security, consider limiting fail2ban capabilities by specifying
CapabilityBoundingSet in the drop-in configuration file for the provided
[Service] CapabilityBoundingSet=CAP_DAC_READ_SEARCH CAP_NET_ADMIN CAP_NET_RAW
In the example above,
CAP_DAC_READ_SEARCH will allow fail2ban full read access, and
CAP_NET_RAW allow setting of firewall rules with iptables. Additional capabilities may be required, depending on your fail2ban configuration. See
man capabilities for more info.
Consider limiting file system read and write access by using ReadOnlyDirectories and ReadWriteDirectories, under the
[Service] section. For example:
ReadOnlyDirectories=/ ReadWriteDirectories=/var/run/fail2ban /var/lib/fail2ban /var/spool/postfix/maildrop /tmp /var/log/fail2ban
In the example above, this limits the file system to read-only, except for
/var/run/fail2ban for pid and socket files, and
/var/spool/postfix/maildrop for postfix sendmail. Again, this will be dependent on you system configuration and fail2ban configuration. The
/tmp directory is needed for some fail2ban actions. Note that adding
/var/log is necessary if you want fail2ban to log its activity.
/etc/fail2ban/jail.d/jail.conf, add this section and update the list of trusted IP addresses.
If your firewall is iptables:
[DEFAULT] bantime = 864000 ignoreip = 127.0.0.1/8 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 [sshd] enabled = true filter = sshd action = iptables[name=SSH, port=ssh, protocol=tcp] sendmail-whois[name=SSH, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org] backend = systemd maxretry = 5
If your firewall is shorewall:
[DEFAULT] bantime = 864000 ignoreip = 127.0.0.1/8 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 [ssh-shorewall] enabled = true filter = sshd action = shorewall sendmail-whois[name=SSH, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org] backend = systemd maxretry = 5
Also do not forget to add/change:
/etc/ssh/sshd_config. Else, password failures are not logged correctly.