VLAN (简体中文)

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翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 VLAN翻译,最后翻译时间:2015-04-28,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。


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Virtual LANs give you the ability to sub-divide a LAN. Linux can accept VLAN tagged traffic and presents each VLAN ID as a different network interface (eg: eth0.100 for VLAN ID 100)

本文介绍如何通过 iproute2systemd-networkdnetctl 配置 VLAN 。


此前 Arch Linux 用 vconfig 命令设置 VLANs ,该命令已被 ip 命令取代。请确认 iproute2 已安装。

下面的范例假定 网口eth0名字eth0.100vlan id100

创建 VLAN 设备

用下列命令添加 VLAN 网口:

# ip link add link eth0 name eth0.100 type vlan id 100

执行 ip link 命令确认 VLAN 已创建。

这个 VLAN 网口就像一个普通的物理网口,所有流经这个网口的数据包将被加上 VLAN tag 并流经它关联的物理网口(本例中的 eth0)。仅配置为相同 VLAN 的设备可接收这些数据包,否则将被丢弃。 Using a name like eth0.100 is just convention and not enforced; you can alternatively use eth0_100 or something descriptive like IPTV. To see the VLAN ID on an interface, in case you used an unconventional name:

# ip -d link show eth0.100

The -d flag shows full details on an interface:

# ip -d addr show
4: eno1.100@eno1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default 
   link/ether 96:4a:9c:84:36:51 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff promiscuity 0 
   vlan protocol 802.1Q id 100 <REORDER_HDR> 
   inet6 fe80::944a:9cff:fe84:3651/64 scope link 
      valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

添加 IP

Now add an IPv4 address to the just created vlan link, and activate the link:

# ip addr add brd dev eth0.100
# ip link set dev eth0.100 up


To cleanly shutdown the setting before you remove the link, you can do:

# ip link set dev eth0.100 down


Removing a VLAN interface is significantly less convoluted

# ip link delete eth0.100



Use the following configuration files:





Then enable systemd-networkd.service. See systemd-networkd for details.


You can use netctl for this purpose, see the self-explanatory example profiles in /etc/netctl/examples/vlan-{dhcp,static} .


udev 重命名虚拟设备

An annoyance is that udev may try to rename virtual devices as they are added, thus ignoring the name configured for them (in this case eth0.100).

For instance, if the following commands are issued:

# ip link add link eth0 name eth0.100 type vlan id 100
# ip link show 

This could generate the following output:

1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN 
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
3: rename1@eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state DOWN 
    link/ether aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

udev has ignored the configured virtual interface name eth0.100 and autonamed it rename1.

The solution is to edit /etc/udev/rules.d/network_persistent.rules and append DRIVERS=="?*" to the end of the physical interface's configuration line.

For example, for the interface aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff (eth0):

SUBSYSTEM=="net", ATTR{address}=="aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff", NAME="eth0", DRIVERS=="?*"

A reboot should mean that VLANs configure correctly with the names assigned to them.