iwd (iNet wireless daemon) is a wireless daemon for Linux written by Intel. The core goal of the project is to optimize resource utilization by not depending on any external libraries and instead utilizing features provided by the Linux Kernel to the maximum extent possible.
iwd can work in standalone mode or in combination with comprehensive network managers like ConnMan, systemd-networkd and NetworkManager.
The iwd package provides the client program
iwctl, the daemon
iwd and the Wi-Fi monitoring tool
iwgtkAUR provides a GUI front-end for iwd and an indicator (tray) icon.
iwd.service so it can be controlled through the
iwctl command or through
wheeluser group are allowed to interact with iwd. In order to use iwctl or iwgtk, you need to add your user to one of those groups.
To get an interactive prompt do:
The interactive prompt is then displayed with a prefix of
- In the
iwctlprompt you can auto-complete commands and device names by hitting
- To exit the interactive prompt, send EOF by pressing
- You can use all commands as command line arguments without entering an interactive prompt. For example:
iwctl device wlan0 show.
To list all available commands:
Connect to a network
First, if you do not know your wireless device name, list all Wi-Fi devices:
[iwd]# device list
If the device or its corresponding adapter is turned off, turn it on:
[iwd]# device device set-property Powered on
[iwd]# adapter adapter set-property Powered on
Then, to initiate a scan for networks (note that this command will not output anything):
[iwd]# station device scan
You can then list all available networks:
[iwd]# station device get-networks
Finally, to connect to a network:
[iwd]# station device connect SSID
Tab, the available devices are displayed, type the first letters of the device and
Tabto complete. The same way, type
Tabin order to have the list of available networks displayed. Then, type the first letters of the chosen network followed by
Tabin order to complete the command.
If a passphrase is required, you will be prompted to enter it. Alternatively, you can supply it as a command line argument:
$ iwctl --passphrase passphrase station device connect SSID
iwdautomatically stores network passphrases in the
/var/lib/iwddirectory and uses them to auto-connect in the future. See #Network configuration.
- To connect to a network with spaces in the SSID, the network name should be double quoted when connecting.
- iwd only supports PSK pass-phrases from 8 to 63 ASCII-encoded characters. The following error message will be given if the requirements are not met:
PMK generation failed. Ensure Crypto Engine is properly configured.
Connect to a network using WPS/WSC
If your network is configured such that you can connect to it by pressing a button (Wikipedia:Wi-Fi Protected Setup), check first that your network device is also capable of using this setup procedure.
[iwd]# wsc list
Then, provided that your device appeared in the above list,
[iwd]# wsc device push-button
and push the button on your router. The procedure works also if the button was pushed beforehand, less than 2 minutes earlier.
If your network requires to validate a PIN number to connect that way, check the
help command output to see how to provide the right options to the
Disconnect from a network
To disconnect from a network:
[iwd]# station device disconnect
Show device and connection information
To display the details of a WiFi device, like MAC address:
[iwd]# device device show
To display the connection state, including the connected network of a Wi-Fi device:
[iwd]# station device show
Manage known networks
To list networks you have connected to previously:
[iwd]# known-networks list
To forget a known network:
[iwd]# known-networks SSID forget
Alternatively, iwgtkAUR provides a GUI front-end through which iwd can be controlled.
iwgtk without any arguments launches the application window, which can be used to toggle your adapters and devices on/off, change their operating modes, view available networks, connect to available networks, and manage known networks.
To launch iwgtk's indicator (tray) icon daemon, run:
$ iwgtk -i
If the indicator icon does not appear, then your system tray most likely lacks support for the StatusNotifierItem API, in which case you need to run a compatibility layer such as snixembed-gitAUR.
The following system trays support StatusNotifierItem, and therefore work out of the box:
- KDE Plasma
The following trays only support XEmbed, and therefore require snixembed-gitAUR:
The most common use case for iwgtk is to start the indicator daemon every time you log into your desktop. If your desktop environment supports the XDG Autostart standard, this should happen automatically due to the
iwgtk-indicator.desktop file which is placed in
/etc/xdg/autostart/ by the AUR package.
Alternatively, a systemd unit file to start the indicator daemon is provided by the AUR package. If your desktop environment supports systemd's
graphical-session.target unit, then iwgtk can be autostarted via systemd by enabling the
iwgtk.service user unit.
By default, iwd stores the network configuration in the directory
/var/lib/iwd. The configuration file is named as
network.type, where network is the network SSID and .type is the network type, either .open, .psk or .8021x. The file is used to store the encrypted
PreSharedKey and optionally the cleartext
Passphrase and can also be created by the user without invoking
iwctl. The file can be used for other configuration pertaining to that network SSID as well. For more settings, see iwd.network(5).
A minimal example file to connect to a WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK secured network with SSID "spaceship" and passphrase "test1234":
- _. If it contains any other characters, the name will instead be an
=-character followed by the hex-encoded version of the SSID.
To calculate the pre-shared key from the passphrase, one of these two methods can be used:
- Enter the passphrase in cleartext in the configuration file:
- The pre-shared key will be appended to the file at the first connect:
[Security] Passphrase=test1234 PreSharedKey=aafb192ce2da24d8c7805c956136f45dd612103f086034c402ed266355297295
- Or the pre-shared key can be calculated from the SSID and the passphrase using wpa_passphrase (from wpa_supplicant) or wpa-pskAUR. See wpa_supplicant#Connecting with wpa_passphrase for more details.
For connecting to a EAP-PWD protected enterprise access point you need to create a file called:
essid.8021x in the
/var/lib/iwd directory with the following content:
[Security] EAP-Method=PWD EAP-Identity=your_enterprise_email EAP-Password=your_password [Settings] AutoConnect=true
If you do not want autoconnect to the AP you can set the option to False and connect manually to the access point via
iwctl. The same applies to the password, if you do not want to store it plaintext leave the option out of the file and just connect to the enterprise AP.
Like EAP-PWD, you also need to create a
essid.8021x file in the directory. Before you proceed to write the configuration file, this is also a good time to find out which CA certificate your organization uses. This is an example configuration file that uses MSCHAPv2 password authentication:
[Security] EAP-Method=PEAP EAP-Identityfirstname.lastname@example.org EAP-PEAP-CACert=/path/to/root.crt EAP-PEAP-ServerDomainMask=radius.realm.edu EAP-PEAP-Phase2-Method=MSCHAPV2 EAP-PEAP-Phase2-Identityemail@example.com EAP-PEAP-Phase2-Password=hunter2 [Settings] AutoConnect=true
MsCHAPv2 passwords can also be stored as a encrypted hash. The correct md4 hash can be calculated with:
$ iconv -t utf16le | openssl md4 -provider legacy
Insert an EOF after your password by pressing
Ctrl+d, do not hit
Enter. The resulting hash needs to be stored inside the
Like EAP-PWD, you also need to create a
essid.8021x file in the directory. Before you proceed to write the configuration file, this is also a good time to find out which CA certificate your organization uses. This is an example configuration file that uses PAP password authentication:
[Security] EAP-Method=TTLS EAP-Identityfirstname.lastname@example.org EAP-TTLS-CACert=cert.pem EAP-TTLS-ServerDomainMask=*.uni-test.de EAP-TTLS-Phase2-Method=Tunneled-PAP EAP-TTLS-Phase2-Identity=user EAP-TTLS-Phase2-Password=password [Settings] AutoConnect=true
eduroam offers a configuration assistant tool (CAT), which unfortunately does not support iwd. However, the installer, which you can download by clicking on the download button then selecting your university, is just a Python script. It is easy to extract the necessary configuration options, including the certificate and server domain mask.
The following table contains a mapping of iwd configuration options to eduroam CAT install script variables.
|Iwd Configuration Option||CAT Script Variable|
|essid||one of |
||the content of |
||one of |
method is the content of
EAP-Method and should be either
PEAP. Once you have extracted all necessary information and converted them to their iwd configuration equivalent you can put them in a configuration file called
essid.8021x as explained in the preceding methods.
EAP-Identitymay not be required by your eduroam provider, in which case you might have to use
anonymous@Config.user_realmin this field.
- If your
DNS:, use only the part after
More example tests can be found in the test cases of the upstream repository.
/etc/iwd/main.conf can be used for main configuration. See iwd.config(5).
Disable auto-connect for a particular network
Create / edit file
/var/lib/iwd/network.type. Add the following section to it:
/var/lib/iwd/spaceship.psk (for example)
Disable periodic scan for available networks
By default when
iwd is in disconnected state, it periodically scans for available networks. To disable periodic scan (so as to always scan manually), create / edit file
/etc/iwd/main.conf and add the following section to it:
Enable built-in network configuration
Since version 0.19, iwd can assign IP address(es) and set up routes using a built-in DHCP client or with static configuration. It is a good alternative to standalone DHCP clients.
To activate iwd's network configuration feature, create/edit
/etc/iwd/main.conf and add the following section to it:
There is also ability to set route metric with
Since version 1.10, iwd supports IPv6, but it is disabled by default in versions below 2.0. Since version 2.0, it is enabled by default.
To disable it, add the following to the configuration file:
To enable it in version below 2.0 and higher than 1.10:
This setting is required to be enabled whether you want to use DHCPv6 or static IPv6 configuration. It can also be set on a per-network basis.
Setting static IP address in network configuration
Add the following section to
/var/lib/iwd/network.type file. For example:
[IPv4] Address=192.168.1.10 Netmask=255.255.255.0 Gateway=192.168.1.1 Broadcast=192.168.1.255 DNS=192.168.1.1
Select DNS manager
At the moment, iwd supports two DNS managers—systemd-resolved and resolvconf.
Add the following section to
Allow any user to read status information
If you want to allow any user to read the status information, but not modify the settings, you can create the following D-Bus configuration file:
<!-- Allow any user to read iwd status information. Overrides some part of /usr/share/dbus-1/system.d/iwd-dbus.conf. --> <!DOCTYPE busconfig PUBLIC "-//freedesktop//DTD D-BUS Bus Configuration 1.0//EN" "http://www.freedesktop.org/standards/dbus/1.0/busconfig.dtd"> <busconfig> <policy context="default"> <deny send_destination="net.connman.iwd"/> <allow send_destination="net.connman.iwd" send_interface="org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties" send_member="GetAll" /> <allow send_destination="net.connman.iwd" send_interface="org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties" send_member="Get" /> <allow send_destination="net.connman.iwd" send_interface="org.freedesktop.DBus.ObjectManager" send_member="GetManagedObjects" /> <allow send_destination="net.connman.iwd" send_interface="net.connman.iwd.Device" send_member="RegisterSignalLevelAgent" /> <allow send_destination="net.connman.iwd" send_interface="net.connman.iwd.Device" send_member="UnregisterSignalLevelAgent" /> </policy> </busconfig>
Verbose TLS debugging
This can be useful, if you have trouble setting up MSCHAPv2 or TTLS. You can set the following environment variable via a drop-in snippet:
Check the iwd logs afterwards by running
journalctl -u iwd.service as root.
Restarting iwd.service after boot
On some machines, it is reported that
iwd.service has to be restarted to work after boot. See FS#63912 and thread 251432. This probably occurs because the Linux kernel and services start too early and iwd starts before wireless network card powers on. As a workaround, extend the unit to add a delay:
[Service] ExecStartPre=/usr/bin/sleep 2
Then reload the systemd manager configuration.
Connect issues after reboot
A low entropy pool can cause connection problems in particular noticeable after reboot. See Random number generation for suggestions to increase the entropy pool.
Wireless device is not renamed by udev
Since version 1.0, iwd disables predictable renaming of wireless device. It installs the following systemd network link configuration file which prevents udev from renaming the interface to
[Match] Type=wlan [Link] NamePolicy=keep kernel
As a result the wireless link name
wlan# is kept after boot. This resolved a race condition between iwd and udev on interface renaming as explained in iwd udev interface renaming.
If this results in issues try masking it with:
# ln -s /dev/null /etc/systemd/network/80-iwd.link
No DHCP in AP mode
Clients may not receive an IP address via DHCP when connecting to iwd in AP mode. It is therefore necessary to enable network configuration by iwd on managed interfaces:
The mentioned file has to be created if it does not already exist.
WiFi keeps disconnecting due to iwd crash
Some users experience disconnections with WiFi, re-connecting continuously but stabilizing eventually and managing to connect.
Users report crashes () of
iwd.service in their journal.
The core issue is having multiple conflicting services for managing their network connections. Check that you do not have enabled them at the same time to fix this issue.
Error loading client private key
To load key files iwd requires the
pkcs8_key_parser kernel module. While on boot it gets loaded by systemd-modules-load.service(8) using
/usr/lib/modules-load.d/pkcs8.conf, that will not be the case if iwd has just been installed.
If messages such as
Error loading client private key /path/to/key show up in the journal when trying to connect to WPA Enterprise networks, manually load the module:
# modprobe pkcs8_key_parser
iwd keeps roaming
iwd will roam to other known APs if the connection is too bad.
This will show up in the system log as
wlan0: deauthenticating from xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx by local choice (Reason: 3=DEAUTH_LEAVING)
You can see the connection signal strength with
iwctl station wlan0 show | grep RSSI
You can increase the threshold to allow a worse connection. RoamThreshold defaults to -70 and RoamThreshold5G to -76.
[General] RoamThreshold=-75 RoamThreshold5G=-80
- Getting Started with iwd
- Network Configuration Settings
- More Examples for WPA Enterprise
- The IWD thread on the Arch Linux Forums
- 2017 Update on new WiFi daemon for Linux by Marcel Holtmann - YouTube
- The New Wi-Fi Experience for Linux - Marcel Holtmann, Intel - YouTube
- How to set up a simple access point with iwd