From ArchWiki

Bcachefs is a next-generation CoW filesystem that aims to provide features from Btrfs and ZFS with a cleaner codebase, more stability, greater speed and a GPL-compatible license.

It is built upon Bcache and is mainly developed by Kent Overstreet.


As of kernel 6.7 Bcachefs has been merged into the upstream Kernel so the linux-mainlineAUR kernel may be installed.

The Bcachefs userspace tools are available from bcachefs-tools.


Single drive

# bcachefs format /dev/sda
# mount -t bcachefs /dev/sda /mnt

Multiple drives

Bcachefs stripes data by default, similar to RAID0. Redundancy is handled via the replicas option. 2 drives with --replicas=2 is equivalent to RAID1, 4 drives with --replicas=2 is equivalent to RAID10, etc.

# bcachefs format /dev/sda /dev/sdb --replicas=n
# mount -t bcachefs /dev/sda:/dev/sdb /mnt

Heterogeneous drives are supported. If they are different sizes, larger stripes will be used on some, so that they all fill up at the same rate. If they are different speeds, reads for replicated data will be sent to the ones with the lowest IO latency. If some are more reliable than others (a hardware raid device, for example) you can set --durability=2 device to count each copy of data on that device as 2 replicas.

SSD caching

Bcachefs has 3 storage targets: background, foreground, and promote. Writes to the filesystem prioritize the foreground drives, which are then moved to the background over time. Reads are cached on the promote drives.

Note: These are only priority guidelines for a single large pool. Writes will go directly to the background if the foreground is full, or to promote if they both are. Metadata will prefer the foreground, but can be written to any of them. Be careful when removing a cache drive, as it may still contain data. see #Removing a device

A recommended configuration is to use an ssd group for the foreground and promote, and an hdd group for the background (a writeback cache).

# bcachefs format \
    --label=ssd.ssd1 /dev/sda \
    --label=ssd.ssd2 /dev/sdb \
    --label=hdd.hdd1 /dev/sdc \
    --label=hdd.hdd2 /dev/sdd \
    --label=hdd.hdd3 /dev/sde \
    --label=hdd.hdd4 /dev/sdf \
    --replicas=2 \
    --foreground_target=ssd \
    --promote_target=ssd \
# mount -t bcachefs /dev/sda:/dev/sdb:/dev/sdc:/dev/sdd:/dev/sde:/dev/sdf /mnt

For a writethrough cache, do the same as above, but set --durability=0 device on each of the ssd devices. For a writearound cache, foreground target to the hdd group, and promote target to the ssd group.


This article or section needs expansion.

Reason: Missing details on which options should be used (Discuss in Talk:Bcachefs)

Most options can be set at either during bcachefs format, at mount time (mount -o option=value), or through sysfs (echo X > /sys/fs/bcachefs/UUID/options/option). Setting the option during format or changing it through sysfs saves it in the filesystem's superblock, making it the default for those drives. Mount options override those defaults.

Note: The filesystem must be mounted for sysfs to be available. All operations except fsck are possible on a live filesystem.
  • data_checksum, metadata_checksum (none, crc32c, crc64)
  • (foreground) compression, background_compression (none, lz4, gzip, zstd)
  • foreground_target, background_target, promote_target

The following can also be set on a per directory or per file basis with bcachefs setattr file --option=value

  • data_replicas
  • data_checksum
  • compression, background_compression
  • foreground_target, background_target, promote_target
Note: Disk usage reporting currently shows uncompressed size. Compression is otherwise complete.

Changing a device's group

# echo group.drive_name > /sys/fs/bcachefs/filesystem_uuid/dev-X/label
Note: This requires a remount to take effect.

Adding a device

# bcachefs device add --label=group.drive_name /mnt /dev/device

If this is the first drive in a group, you will need to change the target settings to make use of it. This example is for adding a cache drive.

# echo new_group > /sys/fs/bcachefs/filesystem_uuid/options/promote_target
# echo new_group > /sys/fs/bcachefs/filesystem_uuid/options/foreground_target
# echo old_group > /sys/fs/bcachefs/filesystem_uuid/options/background_target
Note: Only new writes will be striped across added devices. Existing ones will be unchanged until disk usage reaches a certain threshold, when the disk rebalance is triggered. It is not currently possible to manually trigger a rebalance/restripe.

Removing a device

First make sure there are at least 2 metadata replicas (Evacuate does not appear to work for metadata). If your data and metadata are already replicated, you may skip this step.

# echo 2 > /sys/fs/bcachefs/UUID/options/metadata_replicas
# bcachefs data rereplicate /mnt
# bcachefs device set-state device readonly
# bcachefs device evacuate device

To remove the device:

# bcachefs device remove device
# bcachefs data rereplicate /mnt

Tips and tricks

This article or section needs expansion.

Reason: Information on auto-mounting would be useful (Discuss in Talk:Bcachefs)

Check the journal for more useful error messages.

See also