SSHFS is a FUSE-based filesystem client for mounting remote directories over a Secure Shell connection.
- If you often need to mount sshfs filesystems you may be interested in using an sshfs helper, such as qsshfsAUR, sftpman, sshmntAUR or fmount.py.
- You may want to use Google Authenticator providing additional security as in two-step authentication.
- SSH keys may be used over traditional password authentication.
In order to be able to mount a directory the SSH user needs to be able to access it. Invoke sshfs to mount a remote directory:
$ sshfs [user@]host:[dir] mountpoint [options]
$ sshfs myuser@mycomputer:/remote/path /local/path -C -p 9876
-p 9876 specifies the port number and
-C enables compression. For more options see the #Options section.
When not specified, the remote path defaults to the remote user home directory. Default user names and options can be predefined on a host-by-host basis in
~/.ssh/config to simplify the sshfs usage. For more information see OpenSSH#Client usage.
SSH will ask for the password, if needed. If you do not want to type in the password multiple times a day, see SSH keys.
To unmount the remote system:
$ fusermount3 -u mountpoint
$ fusermount3 -u /local/path
sshfs can automatically convert between local and remote user IDs. Use the
idmap=user option to translate the UID of the connecting user to the remote user
myuser (GID remains unchanged):
$ sshfs myuser@mycomputer:/remote/path /local/path -o idmap=user
If you need more control over UID and GID translation, look at the options
A complete list of options can be found in sshfs(1).
You may want to restrict a specific user to a specific directory on the remote system. This can be done by editing
..... Match User someuser ChrootDirectory /chroot/%u ForceCommand internal-sftp AllowTcpForwarding no X11Forwarding no .....
See also SFTP chroot. For more information check the sshd_config(5) man page for
Automounting can happen on boot, or on demand (when accessing the directory). For both, the setup happens in the fstab.
.ssh/configof your normal user.
To let the root user use an SSH key of a normal user, specify its full path in the
And most importantly, use each sshfs mount at least once manually while root on the client machine so the host's signature is added to the client's
/root/.ssh/known_hosts file. This can also be done manually by appending one or more of the the SSH server's public host keys (the
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_*key.pub files) to
With systemd on-demand mounting is possible using
user@host:/remote/path /local/path fuse.sshfs noauto,x-systemd.automount,_netdev,users,idmap=user,IdentityFile=/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa,allow_other,reconnect 0 0
The important mount options here are noauto,x-systemd.automount,_netdev.
- noauto tells it not to mount at boot
- x-systemd.automount does the on-demand magic
- _netdev tells it that it is a network device, not a block device (without it "No such device" errors might happen)
/etc/fstab, reload the systemd configuration and the required services, which can be found by running
systemctl list-unit-files --type automount
An example on how to use sshfs to mount a remote filesystem through
user@host:/remote/path /local/path fuse.sshfs defaults,_netdev 0 0
Take for example the fstab line
firstname.lastname@example.org:/home/llib/FAH /media/FAH2 fuse.sshfs defaults,_netdev 0 0
The above will work automatically if you are using an SSH key for the user. See Using SSH Keys.
If you want to use sshfs with multiple users, add the following option:
email@example.com:/home/user /media/user fuse.sshfs defaults,allow_other,_netdev 0 0
In order to ensure the network is available before trying to mount, it is not only important to set the
_netdev mount option, but also to add either
--any or a specific
--interface to the appropriate wait-online service for your network manager.
Secure user access
When automounting via fstab, the filesystem will generally be mounted by root. By default, this produces undesireable results if you wish access as an ordinary user and limit access to other users.
An example mountpoint configuration:
user@host:/remote/path /local/path fuse.sshfs noauto,x-systemd.automount,_netdev,user,idmap=user,follow_symlinks,identityfile=/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa,allow_other,default_permissions,uid=USER_ID_N,gid=USER_GID_N 0 0
Summary of the relevant options:
- allow_other - Allow other users than the mounter (i.e. root) to access the share.
- default_permissions - Allow kernel to check permissions, i.e. use the actual permissions on the remote filesystem. This allows prohibiting access to everybody otherwise granted by allow_other.
- uid, gid - set reported ownership of files to given values; uid is the numeric user ID of your user, gid is the numeric group ID of your user.
Read OpenSSH#Checklist first. Further issues to check are:
- Is your SSH login sending additional information from server's
/etc/issuefile e.g.? This might confuse SSHFS. You should temporarily deactivate server's
$ mv /etc/issue /etc/issue.orig
- Keep in mind that most SSH related troubleshooting articles you will find on the web are not systemd related. Often
/etc/fstabdefinitions wrongly begin with
sshfs#user@host:/mnt/server/directory ... fuse ...instead of using the syntax
user@host:/mnt/server/directory ... fuse.sshfs ... x-systemd, ...
- Check that the owner of server's source directory and content is owned by the server's user.
$ chown -R user_s: /mnt/servers/directory
- The server's user ID can be different from the client's one. Obviously both user names have to be the same. You just have to care for the client's user IDs. SSHFS will translate the UID for you with the following mount options:
- Check that the client's target mount point (directory) is owned by the client user. This directory should have the same user ID as defined in SSHFS's mount options.
$ chown -R user_c: /mnt/client/directory
- Check that the client's mount point (directory) is empty. By default you cannot mount SSHFS directories to non-empty directories.
Connection reset by peer
- If you are trying to access the remote system with a hostname, try using its IP address, as it can be a domain name resolving issue. Make sure you edit
/etc/hostswith the server details.
- Make sure your user can log into the server (especially when using
- Make sure
Subsystem sftp /usr/lib/ssh/sftp-serveris enabled in
/etc/ssh/sshd_configon the remote system.
- If you are using a non-default key name and passing it as
-i .ssh/my_key, this will not work. You have to use
-o IdentityFile=/home/user/.ssh/my_key, with the full path to the key.
- If your
/root/.ssh/config/is a symlink, you will be getting this error as well. See this serverfault topic
- Adding the option
sshfs -o sshfs_debug user@server ...) can help in resolving the issue.
- If that does not reveal anything useful, you might also try adding the option
- If you are trying to sshfs into a router running DD-WRT or the like, there is a solution here. (Note that the
-osftp_server=/opt/libexec/sftp-serveroption can be used to the sshfs command instead of patching dropbear).
- If you see this only on boot, it may be that systemd is attempting to mount prior to a network connection being available. Enabling the appropriate wait-online service for your network manager fixes this.
- Old Forum thread: sshfs: Connection reset by peer.
sshfs -o sshfs_debug,IdentityFile=/path/to/key user@server ...).
Remote host has disconnected
If you receive this message directly after attempting to use sshfs:
- First make sure that the remote machine has sftp installed! It will not work, if not.
- Then, check that the path of the
/etc/ssh/sshd_configon the remote machine is valid.
fstab mounting issues
To get verbose debugging output, add the following to the mount options:
\040represents a space which fstab uses to separate fields.
To be able to run
mount -av and see the debug output, remove the following:
Some directories are empty
sshfs by default does not support symlinks. If those directories happened to be symlinks, use:
$ sshfs user@host:/remote/path /local/path -o follow_symlinks
Files not refreshed
If you see old content on remote, consider using option
$ sshfs user@host:/remote/path /local/path -o dir_cache=no
Limited transfer on fast network
If you observe transfer than is lower than your network capabilities and high CPU usage on the party where files are copied from, disable compression (remove
-C option or set
- How to mount chrooted SSH filesystem, with special care with owners and permissions questions.