From ArchWiki

From systemd-cryptenroll(1):

systemd-cryptenroll is a tool for enrolling hardware security tokens and devices into a LUKS2 encrypted volume, which may then be used to unlock the volume during boot.

systemd-cryptenroll allows enrolling smartcards, FIDO2 tokens and Trusted Platform Module security chips into LUKS devices, as well as regular passphrases. These devices are later unlocked by systemd-cryptsetup@.service(8), using the enrolled tokens.


systemd-cryptenroll is part of and packaged with systemd. However, extra packages are required to use hardware devices as keys:

List keyslots

systemd-cryptenroll can list the keyslots in a LUKS device, similar to cryptsetup luksDump, but in a more user-friendly format.

# systemd-cryptenroll /dev/disk
   0 password
   1 tpm2

Erasing keyslots

# systemd-cryptenroll /dev/disk --wipe-slot=SLOT

Where SLOT can be:

  • A single keyslot index, as represented in #List keyslots
  • A type of keyslot, which will erase all keyslots of that type. Valid types are empty, password, recovery, pkcs11, fido2, tpm2
  • A combination of all of the above, separated by commas
  • The string all, which erases all keyslots on the device. This option can only be used when enrolling another device or passphrase at the same time.

The --wipe-slot operation can be used in combination with all enrollment options, which is useful to update existing device enrollments:

# systemd-cryptenroll /dev/disk --wipe-slot=fido2 --fido2-device=auto

Enrolling passphrases

Regular password

This is equivalent to cryptsetup luksAddKey.

# systemd-cryptenroll /dev/disk --password

Recovery key

From systemd-cryptenroll(1):

Recovery keys are mostly identical to passphrases, but are computer-generated instead of being chosen by a human, and thus have a guaranteed high entropy. The key uses a character set that is easy to type in, and may be scanned off screen via a QR code.

A recovery key is designed to be used as a fallback if the hardware tokens are unavailable, and can be used in place of regular passphrases whenever they are required.

# systemd-cryptenroll /dev/disk --recovery-key

Enrolling hardware devices

The --type-device options must point to a valid device path of their respective type. A list of available devices can be obtained by passing the list argument to this option. Alternatively, if you only have a single device of the desired type connected, the auto option can be used to automatically select it.

Note: After enrolling the hardware tokens into the LUKS2 volumes, you must configure your system to use them when appropriate. See dm-crypt/System configuration#Trusted Platform Module and FIDO2 keys for volumes that should be unlocked in early userspace like the root filesystem, and dm-crypt/System configuration#Unlocking in late userspace for other partitions.

PKCS#11 tokens or smartcards

The token or smartcard must contain a RSA key pair, which will be used to encrypt the generated key that will be used to unlock the volume.

# systemd-cryptenroll /dev/disk --pkcs11-token-uri=device

FIDO2 tokens

Any FIDO2 token that supports the "hmac-secret" extension can be used with systemd-cryptenroll. The following example would enroll a FIDO2 token to an encrypted LUKS2 block device, requiring only user presence as authentication.

# systemd-cryptenroll /dev/disk --fido2-device=device --fido2-with-client-pin=no

In addition, systemd-cryptenroll supports using the token's built-in user verification methods:

  • --fido2-with-user-presence defines whether to verify the user presence (i.e. by tapping the token) before unlocking, defaults to yes
  • --fido2-with-user-verification defines whether to require user verification before unlocking, defaults to no
  • These options will have no effect if the token does not support these features.
  • See User Presence vs User Verification for more information on the difference between the two.

By default, the cryptographic algorithm used when generating a FIDO2 credential is es256 which denotes Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) over NIST P-256 with SHA-256. If desired and provided by the FIDO2 token, a different cryptographic algorithm can be specified during enrollment.

Note: This may also be desirable for those concerned with ECDSA. See SSH keys#ECDSA for details.

Suppose that a previous FIDO2 token has already been enrolled and the user wishes to enroll another, the following generates an eddsa credential which denotes EdDSA over Curve25519 with SHA-512 and authenticates the device with a previous enrolled token instead of a password.

# systemd-cryptenroll /dev/disk --fido2-device=device --fido2-credential-algorithm=eddsa --unlock-fido2-device=auto
Note: Both tokens must be plugged in to the system for successful enrollment.

Trusted Platform Module

This article or section needs expansion.

Reason: Document --tpm2-public-key --tpm2-seal-key-handle --tpm2-device-key --tpm2-pcrlock (Discuss in Talk:Systemd-cryptenroll)

systemd-cryptenroll has native support for enrolling LUKS keys in TPMs. It requires the following:

To begin, run the following command to list your installed TPMs and the driver in use:

$ systemd-cryptenroll --tpm2-device=list
Tip: If your computer has multiple TPMs installed, specify the one you wish to use with --tpm2-device=/path/to/tpm2_device in the following steps.

A key may be enrolled in both the TPM and the LUKS volume using only one command. The following example generates a new random key, adds it to the volume so it can be used to unlock it in addition to the existing keys, and binds this new key to PCR 7 (Secure Boot state):

# systemd-cryptenroll --tpm2-device=auto /dev/sdX

where /dev/sdX is the full path to the encrypted LUKS volume. Use --unlock-key-file=/path/to/keyfile if the LUKS volume is unlocked by a keyfile instead of a passphrase.

Refer to systemd-cryptenroll(1) and Trusted Platform Module#Accessing PCR registers for common PCR measurements in Linux. Adjust the --tpm2-pcrs=7 default as necessary (parameters are separated by the + symbol).

  • Make sure Secure Boot is active and in user mode when binding to PCR 7, otherwise, unauthorized boot devices could unlock the encrypted volume.
  • The state of PCR 7 can change if firmware certificates change, which can risk locking the user out. This can be implicitly done by fwupd[1] or explicitly by rotating Secure Boot keys.

The combination of PCRs to bind to depends on the individual case to balance usability and lock-down. For example, you may require UEFI firmware updates without manual intervention to the Secure Boot state, or different boot devices. As another example, Microsoft's Bitlocker prefers PCR 7+11, but may also use other PCR combinations.

  • It is possible to require a PIN to be entered in addition to the TPM state being correct. Simply add the option --tpm2-with-pin=yes to the command above and enter the PIN when prompted.
  • systemd-cryptenroll does not check the TPM measurement before asking for the PIN, therefore consider using a unique PIN since the environment may be untrustworthy.

To check that the new key was enrolled, dump the LUKS configuration and look for a systemd-tpm2 token entry, as well as an additional entry in the Keyslots section:

# cryptsetup luksDump /dev/sdX

To test that the key works, run the following command while the LUKS volume is closed:

# systemd-cryptsetup attach mapping_name /dev/sdX - tpm2-device=auto

where mapping_name is your chosen name for the volume once opened.

See dm-crypt/System configuration#crypttab and dm-crypt/System configuration#Trusted Platform Module and FIDO2 keys in order to unlock the volume at boot time.

Note: While you may specify the UUID of your LUKS volume in place of the pathname in /etc/crypttab, the systemd-cryptenroll command itself currently only supports path names.

See systemd-cryptenroll(1) and crypttab(5) for more information and examples.

See also