Pantheon (简体中文)

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Pantheon 是linux发行版 elementary os 的默认桌面环境。由开发者使用vala语言和gtk3工具包编写完成,高效并且易于使用。用户界面上,与GNOME-shell和Mac OS X多有相似之处。

安装

Pantheon桌面环境目前不由archlinux官方维护,要在archlinux安装使用Pantheon桌面环境可以向系统添加三方维护的软件源,并从该软件源安装相关软件包,将以下代码添加到软件源列表(需要管理员权限) /etc/pacman.conf:(每日构建版本)

[pantheon]
SigLevel = Optional
Server = http://pkgbuild.com/~alucryd/$repo/$arch
提示: 对这些软件包的编译脚本感兴趣的可以访问Alucryd's GitHub repository.

当然,如果喜欢也可以选择自己编译这些软件包,相关的软件包源码都可以直接从 AUR 系统找到.

如果只是向体验基础的Pantheon用户界面.可以安装pantheon-session-bzrAUR,这将自动安装以下软件包:

当然,要获取更完美的Pantheon桌面体验,还请同时安装以下软件包:

提示: 请确保系统安装的以下程序包都是带-bzr的版本,已避免可能导致的错误。
Note: You will also need to install plugs, look for "switchboard-plug-*" in the AUR or in Alucryd's GitHub repository.

推荐安装以下字体包来获取最佳桌面体验:

补充信息

Packages based on older evolution-data-server

dexter-contacts-bzrAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror] and feedler-bzrAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror] do not build because they are based on evolution-data-server 3.2. Arch Linux provides version 3.10 which uses a different Vala API.

启用Pantheon桌面

使用显示服务器启动

pantheon-session-bzrAUR provides a session entry for display managers such as gdm or lightdm.

Note: Either use the bzr version of cerbere or add 'gala' to the monitored processes for this to work.

通过 .xinitrc 启动

你也可以用 ~/.xinitrc 启动Pantheon。这段代码将能够成功启动Pantheon:

#!/bin/sh
 
if [ -d /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc.d ]; then
  for f in /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc.d/*; do
    [ -x "$f" ] && . "$f"
  done
  unset f
fi

gsettings-data-convert &
xdg-user-dirs-gtk-update &
/usr/lib/polkit-gnome/polkit-gnome-authentication-agent-1 &
/usr/lib/gnome-settings-daemon/gnome-settings-daemon &
/usr/lib/gnome-user-share/gnome-user-share &
eval $(gnome-keyring-daemon --start --components=pkcs11,secrets,ssh,gpg)
export GNOME_KEYRING_CONTROL GNOME_KEYRING_PID GPG_AGENT_INFO SSH_AUTH_SOCK
exec cerbere
Note: Pantheon may refuse to start correctly, resulting in errors such as no visible mouse cursor and others. In this case you have to add the window manager 'gala' to the list of monitored processes of cebere. This can be done in dconf-editor and should look like this. Remember do not run dconf-editor as root, use your local username.

Autostart applications

Pantheon, when launched via ~/.xinitrc, does not support XDG autostart. However, there are 3 other ways to achieve this for applications which do not provide a systemd unit:

  • You may add any program to your ~/.xinitrc, preferably right before the exec cerbere line. This is the better choice for one-shot programs.
  • Or you may edit the org.pantheon.cerbere.monitored-processes key using dconf-editor and add the programs of your choice. This method is best for applications which keep running in the background.
  • Or you may use a program like dapperAUR, dex-gitAUR, or fbautostartAUR to add support for XDG autostart in your ~/.xinitrc.
Note: Keep in mind that applications started via cerbere cannot be terminated, they will keep respawning.

Configuration

Configuring Pantheon is done via switchboard-bzrAUR[broken link: package not found] and its plugs, most are available in the AUR and the custom repo. All pantheon settings can also be altered via dconf, they are located in the org.pantheon key. Use dconf-editor for easy editing.

Part of the configuration is handled by gnome-control-center via a dedicated plug, which unfortunately only supports GNOME up to 3.6. Use gnome-control-center itself and gnome-tweak-tool instead.

Pantheon Files

Enable context menu entries

If you want to enable context menu entries such as for file-roller to extract/compress archives, then you have to additionally install contractor-bzrAUR[broken link: package not found].

Terminal

Opacity (transparency)

You can set a certain opacity to make Pantheon Terminal (semi-)transparent. Open dconf-editor and go to org.pantheon.terminal.settings.opacity to set your desired opacity.

Known Issues

Indicators not working in wingpanel

Make sure the /etc/xdg/autostart/indicator-[name].desktop file contains Pantheon inside OnlyShowIn=

OnlyShowIn=Unity;XFCE;GNOME;Pantheon;
Note:
  • Indicator support itself is a complex issue, due to standards discrepancies between Ubuntu and Gnome's implementation of KDE's status notification indicators.
  • The pantheon devs are working on a number of their own indicators for wingpanel.

Indicator-session menus not working

This version of indicator-session relies on dbus methods native to Unity for most of it's fuctions; it can be made to work by patching out the use of Unity dialogs, such as in indicator-session-pantheon-bzr

This version of indicator-session fails to interact with the session manager somehow; a (crudely hacked) version that uses systemd/logind instead is available indicator-session-systemdAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]

About This Computer, Lock and Sound Settings (indicator-soundAUR or indicator-sound-pantheon-bzr) rely on gnome components that may not be installed, such as gnome-control-center and gnome-screensaver.

For Lock functionality (including "Ctrl+L" hotkey), replace gnome-screensaver with light-locker or XScreenSaver and a script that emulates the gnome-screensaver dbus.

No transparency in pantheon-terminal

Transparency in pantheon-terminal is not yet fully functional with GTK themes other than the elmentaryOS theme. Either use gtk-theme-elementaryAUR or add this code to your theme.

White icons in pantheon-files

Currently there seems to be a bug which displays the view icons in the top location in a white colour instead of black. This can be fixed by installing gtk-theme-elementary-bzrAUR[broken link: package not found] or adding the following line to gtk-widgets.css or gtk-widgets.css of your gtk-theme-elementaryAUR theme:

GtkToolItem { color: @text_color; }

Wingpanel is transparent

Wingpanel is transparent by design when using the elementary GTK theme. It becomes black when a maximized window occupies your screen. However, using other GTK themes will produce a solid panel most of the time.

Corrupted graphics in canonical indicators

Indicators behave incorrectly with every theme I have tried. They are very ancient, all of them date back to 2012 because the newer indicators depend on Ubuntu patches, and they should be killed with fire anyway. Wingpanel is doing just that and I hope the next major release will ship their new plugin system.

Cannot interact with the LightDM Pantheon greeter

You need to delete /var/lib/lightdm/.pam_environment. Do note however that this file is a workaround for the following LightDM bug: https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/unity-greeter/+bug/1024482

Troubleshooting

Gala crashes on start

It appears that unconfigured gala tries to use default gnome wallpaper as a background. However, the corresponding file is absent unless you have gnome-themes-standard installed. Thus, install gnome-themes-standard to workaround the crash. It is safe to remove this package after you configure pantheon in a way you want.

How can I add new applications to the dock?

Either drag and drop a desktop file on it, or right click on a running application and select "Keep in dock". You can then reorder icons by drag and drop.

How can I change the default appearance such as GTK theme, font size, etc?

Use gnome-tweak-tool or see GTK+.

I do not have any mouse cursor

The 'gala' window manager is most likely not running. #Via .xinitrc[broken link: invalid section] Add 'gala' to the list of cerbere's monitored processes.

Wingpanel is empty except for Applications

The indicators that are displayed in the wingpanel are split into separate packages. #Installation[broken link: invalid section] Install additional indicators such as wingpanel-indicator-datetime-bzrAUR[broken link: package not found], indicator-powerAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror] or indicator-soundAUR.