Wayland is a protocol for a compositor to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing this protocol. All major Linux desktop systems like Gnome, KDE do support Wayland, and there is also a reference implementation for a compositor called "Weston". XWayland implements a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy X11 applications on Wayland.
The biggest issue is, in 2016, with screen recording, as applications do not see other applications contents any more.
- 1 Requirements
- 2 Weston
- 3 Gnome
- 4 GUI libraries
- 5 Window managers and desktop shells
- 6 Troubleshooting
- 7 See also
Weston is the reference implementation of a Wayland compositor.
|Ctrl + Alt + Backspace||Quit Weston|
|Super + Scroll (or PageUp/PageDown)||Zoom in/out of desktop|
|Super + Tab||Switch windows|
|Super + LMB||Move Window|
|Super + MMB||Rotate Window !|
|Super + RMB||Resize Window|
|Super + Alt + Scroll||Change window opacity|
|Super + K||Force Kill Active Window|
|Super + KeyUp/KeyDown||Switch Prev/Next Workspace|
|Super + Shift + KeyUp/KeyDown||Grab Current Window and Switch Workspace|
|Super + Fn||Switch to Workspace n|
|Super + S||Take a screenshot|
|Super + R||Record a screencast.|
Now that Wayland and its requirements are installed you should be ready to test it out.
It is possible to run Weston inside a running X session:
Alternatively, to try to launch Weston natively, switch to a terminal and run:
Then at a TTY within Weston, you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:
To move flowers around the screen:
To display images:
$ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...
Example configuration file for keyboard layout, module selection and UI modifications. See
$ ls /sys/class/drm card0 card0-VGA-1 card1 card1-DVI-I-1 card1-HDMI-A-1 card1-VGA-2
card0 is the unused built-in video adapter. The add-on adapter
card1 is cabled to one HDMI and one DVI monitor, so the output names are
[core] # xwayland support modules=xwayland.so [libinput] enable_tap=true [shell] background-image=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Aqua.jpg background-color=0xff002244 panel-color=0x90ff0000 locking=true animation=zoom close-animation=fade focus-animation=dim-layer #binding-modifier=ctrl #num-workspaces=6 ### for cursor themes install xcursor-themes pkg from Extra. ### #cursor-theme=whiteglass #cursor-size=24 ### tablet options ### #lockscreen-icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/256x256/actions/lock.png #lockscreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Garden.jpg #homescreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Blinds.jpg #animation=fade ### for Laptop displays ### #[output] #name=LVDS1 #mode=1680x1050 #transform=90 #[output] #name=VGA1 # The following sets the mode with a modeline, you can get modelines for your preffered resolutions using the cvt utility #mode=173.00 1920 2048 2248 2576 1080 1083 1088 1120 -hsync +vsync #transform=flipped #[output] #name=X1 #mode=1024x768 #transform=flipped-270 [input-method] #path=/usr/lib/weston/weston-keyboard [keyboard] keymap_rules=evdev #keymap_layout=gb,de #keymap_options=caps:ctrl_modifier,shift:both_capslock_cancel ### keymap_options from /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst ### numlock-on=true [terminal] #font=DroidSansMono #font-size=14 [launcher] icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal [launcher] icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png path=/usr/bin/gnome-terminal [launcher] icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png path=/usr/bin/firefox [launcher] icon=/usr/share/weston/icon_flower.png path=/usr/bin/weston-flower [screensaver] # Uncomment path to disable screensaver path=/usr/libexec/weston-screensaver duration=600
[core] modules=xwayland.so [keyboard] keymap_layout=gb [output] name=LVDS1 mode=1680x1050 transform=90 [launcher] icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal [launcher] icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png path=/usr/bin/firefox
Install the package.
When you want to run an X application from within Weston, it spins up Xwayland to service the request. The following configuration is shown above:
Weston has build-in screencast recording which can be started and stopped by pressing the
Super+r key combination. Screencasts are saved to the file
capture.wcap in the current working directory of Weston.
The WCAP format is a lossless video format specific to Weston, which only records the difference in frames. To be able to play the recorded screencast, the WCAP file will need to be converted to a format which a media player can understand. First, convert the capture to the YUV pixel format:
$ wcap-decode capture.wcap --yuv4mpeg2 > capture.y4m
The YUV file can then be transcoded to other formats using FFmpeg.
High DPI displays
[output] name=... scale=2
Weston uses the default sans-serif font for window title bars, clocks, etc. See Font configuration#Replace or set default fonts for instructions on how to change this font.
Install and test
If you run Gnome, install XWayland with thepackage, then run it:
$ dbus-run-session -- gnome-shell --display-server --wayland
To test, install thepackage and run one of its applications, for example:
This is still experimental (state 2016-11-18) and not everything will run as expected. Known issues:
- When launching without GDM, gnome-session needs to be started manual, no shutdown/restart buttons work (gnome issue 774774)
- Starting X11 on tty1, wayland on tty2: windows of gnome applications end up on tty2 no matter where started (gnome issue 774775)
- Not all weston applications work, e.g. weston-terminal.
- As of November 2016 there is an ongoing discussion how to implement screen recording. Currently the compositors implement at least basic functionality, so does gnome.
To auto-start on login, only on virtual terminal 1, one can enter this into
[[ -z $DISPLAY && $XDG_VTNR -eq 1 ]] && dbus-run-session -- gnome-shell --display-server --wayland
some practical settings. for nemo prevent that the desktop is created <ref>nemo issue 1343</ref>
gsettings set org.nemo.desktop show-desktop-icons false
See details on the official website.
Thepackage from the official repositories now has the Wayland backend enabled.
GTK+ 3 gained support for multiple backends at runtime and can switch between backends in the same way Qt can with lighthouse.
When both Wayland and X backends are enabled, GTK+ will default to the X11 backend, but this can be overridden by modifying an environment variable:
QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl environment variable.
The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is enabled in the official package in extra.
To run a Clutter app on Wayland, set
Experimental wayland support is now in SDL 2.0.2 and enabled by default on Arch Linux.
To run a SDL application on Wayland, set
Experimental wayland support is now in GLFW 3.1 and can be enabled with the
-DGLFW_USE_WAYLAND=ON CMake option at compile time. You can also install the package AUR from the AUR.
EFL has complete Wayland support. To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland project page.
Window managers and desktop shells
|GNOME||Compositing||See GNOME#Starting GNOME.|
|sway||Tiling||Sway is an i3-compatible window manager for Wayland. Github|
|Enlightenment||(Unclear)||Long running minimal Window Manager-turned Wayland compositor. E19 originally had Wayland support but this was removed and now only E20+ Wayland is considered stable enough for regular use. More Info|
|KDE Plasma||Compositing||See KDE#Starting Plasma|
|Orbment||Tiling||orbment (previously loliwm) is a tiling WM for Wayland.|
|Velox||Tiling||Velox is a simple window manager based on swc. It is inspired by dwm and xmonad.|
|Orbital||Compositing||Orbital is a Wayland compositor and shell, using Qt5 and Weston. The goal of the project is to build a simple yet flexible and good looking Wayland desktop. It is not a full fledged DE but rather the analogue of a WM in the X11 world, such as Awesome or Fluxbox.|
|Papyros Shell||(Unclear)||Papyros Shell is the desktop shell for Papyros, built using QtQuick and QtCompositor as a compositor for Wayland.|
|Maynard||(Unclear)||Maynard is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti.|
|Motorcar||(Unclear)||Motorcar is a wayland compositor to explore 3D windowing.|
|Way Cooler||Tiling||AUR is a customizeable (lua config files) Wayland compositor written in Rust. Inspired by i3 and awesome.|
|Maze Compositor||Floating 3D||Maze Compositor is a 3D QT based wayland compositor|
|Grefsen||Floating||Grefsen is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.|
Some of installed wayland desktop clients might store information in
/usr/share/wayland-sessions/*.desktop files about how to start them in wayland.
LLVM assertion failure
If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuildwithout Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.
This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM. You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:
$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so
Applications using dbus crashes on startup
For a temporary solution, use
dbus-launch to run the application. For example, to launch inside a weston session, this command is sufficient.
Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes
Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the
CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from
/etc/environment or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.