XDG user directories
- xdg-user-dirs is a tool to help manage "well known" user directories like the desktop folder and the music folder. It also handles localization (i.e. translation) of the filenames.
- The way it works is that xdg-user-dirs-update(1) is run very early in the login phase. This program reads a configuration file, and a set of default directories. It then creates localized versions of these directories in the users home directory and sets up a configuration file in
~/.config) that applications can read to find these directories.
Most file managers indicate XDG user directories with special icons.
Creating default directories
Creating a full suite of localized default user directories within the
$HOME directory can be done automatically by running:
LC_ALL=C xdg-user-dirs-update --forcecan be used.
When executed, it will also automatically:
- Create a local
~/.config/user-dirs.dirsconfiguration file: used by applications to find and use home directories specific to an account.
- Create a local
~/.config/user-dirs.localeconfiguration file: used to set the language according to the locale in use.
The user service
xdg-user-dirs-update.service will also be installed and enabled by default, in order to keep your directories up to date by running this command at the beginning of each login session.
Creating custom directories
Both the local
~/.config/user-dirs.dirs and global
/etc/xdg/user-dirs.defaults configuration files use the following environmental variable format to point to user directories:
XDG_DIRNAME_DIR="$HOME/directory_name" An example configuration file may likely look like this (these are all the template directories):
XDG_DESKTOP_DIR="$HOME/Desktop" XDG_DOCUMENTS_DIR="$HOME/Documents" XDG_DOWNLOAD_DIR="$HOME/Downloads" XDG_MUSIC_DIR="$HOME/Music" XDG_PICTURES_DIR="$HOME/Pictures" XDG_PUBLICSHARE_DIR="$HOME/Public" XDG_TEMPLATES_DIR="$HOME/Templates" XDG_VIDEOS_DIR="$HOME/Videos"
As xdg-user-dirs will source the local configuration file to point to the appropriate user directories, it is therefore possible to specify custom folders. For example, if a custom folder for the
XDG_DOWNLOAD_DIR variable has named
~/.config/user-dirs.dirs any application that uses this variable will use this directory.
Alternatively, it is also possible to specify custom folders using the command line. For example, the following command will produce the same results as the above configuration file edit:
$ xdg-user-dirs-update --set DOWNLOAD ~/Internet
Querying configured directories
Once set, any user directory can be viewed with xdg-user-dirs. For example, the following command will show the location of the
Templates directory, which of course corresponds to the
XDG_TEMPLATES_DIR variable in the local configuration file:
$ xdg-user-dir TEMPLATES