User:Windowsboy111/edits/General recommendations (粵語)

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Translation Status: This article is a localized version of General recommendations. Last translation date: 2021-04-28. You can help to synchronize the translation, if there were changes in the English version.

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Notes: Unfinished translations 未譯完架 (Discuss in User talk:Windowsboy111/edits/General recommendations (粵語))

呢版列舉咗受歡迎、對 Arch 系統改善同增加功能嘅文章同重要資訊。讀者應該先讀完 Installation guide (粵語),基本噉裝咗 Arch Linux。讀完#系統管理#軟件包管理先會明其他部分噏乜。

系統管理

呢部分講解點樣管理系統。詳情:Core utilitiesCategory:System administration

用戶同用戶組

啱啱裝完嘅系統淨係會有超級用戶,即係 root。長時間用 root,甚至喺侍服器度嘅 SSH 開放 root,係個危機四伏嘅做法。你應該整個冇乜權限嘅用戶嚟做日常大部分工作,喺系統管理嘅情況下先好用 root。

用戶同用戶組係權限嘅控制方式;管理員可以調整擁有者同成員以畀或禁示啲用戶同系統服務嘅系統資源嘅存取權限。想知道更多(關於安全/危險性),請睇 Users and groups

權限提升

以下嘅命令行架撐畀人扮第二啲用戶(好似root)去行嘢或者開個互動殼層(shell):

  • su — 畀你扮做第二個用戶,但係你要知個用戶嘅密碼。 root 唔使密碼就可以扮做其他用戶。
https://github.com/karelzak/util-linux || util-linuxbase所依頼之一)
  • sudo — 畀一個管理者委派某啲用戶(或用戶組),令佢哋可以用 root 或另一個用戶嘅身分行部份(或者全部)命令,同時留低佢哋行過咩嘅記錄。預設淨係得 root 可以用。
https://www.sudo.ws/sudo/ || sudo
  • pkexec(1) — 一個畀授權咗嘅用戶去扮第啲用戶嘅 Polkit 應用程式。設定畀 Polkit 規則定咗。
https://gitlab.freedesktop.org/polkit/polkit/ || polkit
  • doas — 一個細過、簡單過 sudo 嘅程式。
https://github.com/Duncaen/OpenDoas || opendoas

系統服務管理

Arch Linux 嘅 init 行程systemd,係個畀 Linux 嘅系統同系統服務管理員。如果想維護你裝咗嘅 Arch Linux 系統,學下佢嘅基本用法都係一個唔錯嘅諗頭。用 systemctl 就可以同 systemd 互動

系統維護

因為 Arch 用漸進式發行模式,所以軟件包更新速度好快趣,因此用家要花啲時間同心思去維護系統。讀 Security 就可以揾到關於強化系統嘅建議同技巧。

軟件包管理

呢個環節有管理軟件包嘅正料。睇埋:FAQ#Package managementCategory:Package management

Note: Arch Linux 有陣時要手動處理升級。訂閱 arch-announce 郵件列表或者近日新聞 RSS feed。你都可以每次更新之前睇睇 Arch 新聞

pacman

pacman 係 Arch Linux 嘅軟件管理員(package manager):全部用家都要對佢滾瓜爛熟先至可以讀第二啲文。

pacman/Tips and tricks 就可以攞到優化同 pacman 互動嘅建議同埋點管理軟件包。

軟件庫

睇埋 Official repositories 去瞭解每個仲係有人維護嘅官方軟件庫嘅存在價值。

如果你諗住用卅二位元嘅軟件,啟用 multilib 軟件庫。

Unofficial user repositories 文列出咗其他冇支援嘅庫。

你可以考慮下裝 pkgstats 服務。

鏡像

Mirrors 文有講解用軟件庫最快最新嘅鏡像,贏係起跑線嘅步驟。篇嘢都講咗個好好嘅建議:去定期查下鏡像情況,知返近期更新咗嘅鏡像。

Arch 組建系統

Ports 係最初 BSD 發行版用到嘅軟件組建系統,喺一個系統度一個個目錄樹度有大大細細嘅腳本(scripts)。每個 port 都有個用第三方應用程式命名嘅目錄,入面都裝住啲腳本。

Arch 組建系統(ABS)(繁:Arch 建置系統)有一模一樣嘅功能:佢畀一啲叫 PKGBUILD 嘅組建腳本(縮:起本),而啲腳本有一舊舊關於個軟件嘅資料,好似完整性雜湊值、項目 URL、版本、授權同組建步驟。呢啲 PKGBUILD 會畀 makepkg 處理,整啲 pacman 可以不費九牛二虎之力又一目十行嘅軟件包。

係啲軟件庫同 AUR 入面嘅都要用 makepkg 先至可以整做各式各樣嘅軟件包。

Arch 用家軟件庫

ABS 畀我哋整同起官方庫度五花八門嘅軟件,同時個 Arch 用家庫(AUR)有用家交咗嘅軟件包。AUR 係一個冇支援、裝住腳本嘅庫。你可以喺網絡介面或者 AUR RPC 介面望下個 AUR。

開機

呢個環節講解開機嘅過程。Arch boot process 概括哂。睇埋 Category:Boot process

自動辨識硬體

開機嗰陣,udev 會自己認到啲硬體。Kernel modules 講到一個可行嘅改善方案:閂咗自動嚕啲模組同手動指住所需嘅模組。另外,Xorg 應該有能力用 udev 自動認到所需嘅驅動程式,但係用家可以自己設定個 X 伺服器。

微程式

處理器可能會壞壞哋,而內核開機嗰陣更新微程式Microcode)就可以整返好。

留低開機訊息

開咗機之後,個營幕會畀系統清除,導致用家冇計睇返開機訊息。你可以閂咗開機訊息嘅刪除

Num Lock 嘅啟用

係好多鍵盤度都有 Num Lock。如果開機嗰陣想要自動啟用 Num Lock,參考 Activating numlock on bootup

圖像用家介面(GUI)

呢個環節俾用戶行圖像介面嘅指南。詳睇:Category:Graphical user interfaces

視窗系統

Xorg(即 X 或 X11)係公開認可嘅 窗口管理系統。佢係行 GUI 應用程式嘅必須品,大部分嘅用家都想裝佢。

Wayland 係一個新啲嘅第二個視窗系統,有用 Weston。

顯示驅動器

預設嘅 modesetting 顯示驅動器會同大部分,但係裝咗啱返個顯卡嘅 Xorg#AMD 或者 NVIDIA 驅動器就會有好啲嘅。

桌面環境

雖然 Xorg 有基本嘅框架,可以用嚟起個桌面環境,但係可能要額外嘅組件先至拎到個完完整整嘅用戶體驗。唔同嘅桌面環境,包括 GNOMEKDELXDE 會將五花八門嘅 X 用戶端組埋一齊,好似視窗管理員、控制版、檔案管理員、虛擬終端、文字編輯器、標誌、同其他架撐。新使用者應該會想裝個桌面環境,使到個環境似曾相識。Category:Desktop environments

視窗管理員

一個五臟軀全嘅桌面環境會提供一個完整又持續嘅 GUI,但係會用唔少系統資源。想要最佳化性能或者簡化個環境嘅話,可以試下裝個視窗管理員,再揀啲想要嘅額外嘢。大部分嘅桌面環境都畀用戶用第二個視窗管理員。Dynamicstackingtiling視窗管理員有唔同嘅視窗擺位方式。

顯示管理員

好多桌面環境有個顯示管理員(即顯示管理器),有得自動開個圖像介面同管住啲用戶登入。冇桌面環境嘅用家可以自行裝個。你亦都可以喺簽到嗰陣開 X,簡單噉代替顯示管理員。

用戶檔案目錄

出哂名嘅 Downloads 同 Music 用戶檔案目錄係 xdg-user-dirs-update.service 用戶服務整嘅,裝 xdg-user-dirs 就會有,而且自動啟用埋添。如果你嘅桌面環境或者視窗管理員冇攞到個軟體包嘅話,你可以佢再手動行 xdg-user-dirs-update。(XDG user directories#Creating default directories

電源管理

呢個環節可能對手提電腦使用者或者想要電源管理嘅人好有用。詳睇 Category:Power managementPower management

ACPI 事件

用家可以設定個系統點對進階組態與電源介面(ACPI)嘅事件有反應,好似撳電掣呀、手提電腦度冚蓋噉。睇 Power management#Power management with systemd 就知新同建議方法。想知道舊方法嘅話,睇 acpid

CPU 節流

現代嘅處理器可以減低佢哋嘅時脈(frequency)同電壓,先可以減熱同用電量。冇咁熱,個系統就會靜啲同耐久啲。詳睇 CPU frequency scaling

手提電腦

Category:Laptops 有手提電腦嘅資訊同畀某部筆電嘅安裝指南。Laptop 有手提電腦嘅簡介、有關嘅文同建議。

掛起同休眠

睇下主頁:Power management/Suspend and hibernate

多媒體

Category:Multimedia 有多啲資源。

聲系統

ALSA 係個內核聲系統,佢應該唔使做咩都會行到。(佢淨係要畀人解除靜音先。聲伺服器就如 PulseAudioPipeWire 可以畀用家多啲功能同支援複雜嘅音響設定。

睇下 Professional audio 以瞭解進階嘅音響要求。

網絡

This section is confined to small networking procedures. See Network configuration for a full configuration guide and Category:Networking for related articles.

時鐘同步

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks. See Time synchronization for implementations of such protocol.

DNS安全

For better security while browsing the web, paying online, connecting to SSH services and similar tasks consider using DNSSEC-enabled DNS resolver that can validate signed DNS records, and an encrypted protocol such as DNS over TLS, DNS over HTTPS or DNSCrypt. See Domain name resolution for details.

設立防火牆

A firewall can provide an extra layer of protection on top of the Linux networking stack. While the stock Arch kernel is capable of using Netfilter's iptables and nftables, neither are enabled by default. It is highly recommended to set up some form of firewall. See Category:Firewalls for available guides.

網絡共享

To share files among the machines in a network, follow the NFS or the SSHFS article.

Use Samba to join a Windows network. To configure the machine to use Active Directory for authentication, read Active Directory integration.

See also Category:Network sharing.

輸入裝置

This section contains popular input device configuration tips. See Category:Input devices for more.

Keyboard layouts

Non-English or otherwise non-standard keyboards may not function as expected by default. The necessary steps to configure the keymap are different for virtual console and Xorg, they are described in Keyboard configuration in console and Keyboard configuration in Xorg respectively.

Mouse buttons

Owners of advanced or unusual mice may find that not all mouse buttons are recognized by default, or may wish to assign different actions for extra buttons. Instructions can be found in Mouse buttons.

Laptop touchpads

Many laptops use Synaptics or ALPS "touchpad" pointing devices. For these, and several other touchpad models, you can use either the Synaptics input driver or libinput; see Touchpad Synaptics and libinput for installation and configuration details.

TrackPoints

See the TrackPoint article to configure your TrackPoint device.

優化

This section aims to summarize tweaks, tools and available options useful to improve system and application performance.

Benchmarking

Benchmarking is the act of measuring performance and comparing the results to another system's results or a widely accepted standard through a unified procedure.

Improving performance

The Improving performance article gathers information and is a basic rundown about gaining performance in Arch Linux.

Solid state drives

The Solid State Drives article covers many aspects of solid state drives, including configuring them to maximize their lifetimes.

系統服務

This section relates to daemons.

File index and search

Most distributions have a locate command available to be able to quickly search files. Arch Linux provides several alternatives, see locate for details.

Desktop search engines provide a similar service, while better integrated into desktop environments.

Local mail delivery

A default setup does not provide a way to synchronize mail. A list of mail delivery agents is available in the Mail server article.

Printing

CUPS is a standards-based, open source printing system developed by Apple. See Category:Printers for printer-specific articles.

外觀

This section contains frequently-sought "eye candy" tweaks for an aesthetically pleasing Arch experience. See Category:Eye candy for more.

字體

You may wish to install a set of TrueType fonts, as only unscalable bitmap fonts are included in a basic Arch system. There are several general-purpose font families providing large Unicode coverage and even metric compatibility with fonts from other operating systems.

A plethora of information on the subject can be found in the Fonts and Font configuration articles.

If spending a significant amount of time working from the virtual console (i.e. outside an X server), users may wish to change the console font to improve readability; see Linux console#Fonts.

GTK and Qt themes

A big part of the applications with a graphical interface for Linux systems are based on the GTK or the Qt toolkits. See those articles and Uniform look for Qt and GTK applications for ideas to improve the appearance of your installed programs and adapt it to your liking.

Console improvements

This section applies to small modifications that improve console programs' practicality. See Category:Command-line shells for more.

Tab-completion enhancements

It is recommended to properly set up extended tab completion right away, as instructed in the article of your chosen shell.

Aliases

Aliasing a command, or a group thereof, is a way of saving time when using the console. This is specially helpful for repetitive tasks that do not need significant alteration to their parameters between executions. Common time-saving aliases can be found in Bash#Aliases, which are easily portable to zsh as well.

Alternative shells

Bash is the shell that is installed by default in an Arch system. The live installation media, however, uses zsh with the grml-zsh-config addon package. See Command-line shell#List of shells for more alternatives.

Bash additions

A list of miscellaneous Bash settings, history search and Readline macros is available in Bash#Tips and tricks.

Colored output

This section is covered in Color output in console.

Compressed files

Compressed files, or archives, are frequently encountered on a GNU/Linux system. Tar is one of the most commonly used archiving tools, and users should be familiar with its syntax (Arch Linux packages, for example, are simply zstd compressed tarballs). See Archiving and compression.

Console prompt

The console prompt (PS1) can be customized to a great extent. See Bash/Prompt customization or Zsh#Prompts if using Bash or Zsh, respectively.

Emacs shell

Emacs is known for featuring options beyond the duties of regular text editing, one of these being a full shell replacement. Consult Emacs#Colored output issues for a fix regarding garbled characters that may result from enabling colored output.

Mouse support

Using a mouse with the console for copy-paste operations can be preferred over GNU Screen's traditional copy mode. Refer to General purpose mouse for comprehensive directions. Note that you can already do this in terminal emulators with the clipboard.

Session management

Using terminal multiplexers like tmux or GNU Screen, programs may be run under sessions composed of tabs and panes that can be detached at will, so when the user either kills the terminal emulator, terminates X, or logs off, the programs associated with the session will continue to run in the background as long as the terminal multiplexer server is active. Interacting with the programs requires reattaching to the session.